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pg 31Editor’s NoteSermon 3Critical Apparatus| A [N1r] SERMON Preached at WHITE-HALL, Editor’s NoteNovemb. 2. 1617.

Editor’s Note6Psal. 55. 19.

7Because they have no changes, therefore they fear not God.

Editor’s Note8In a Prison, where men wither'd in a close and perpetual imprisonment; In a Editor’s Note9Galley, where men were chain'd to a laborious and perpetual slavery; In 10places, where any change that could come, would put them in a better state, 11then they were before, this might seem a fitter Text, then in a Court, where 12every man having set his foot, or plac'd his hopes upon the present happy 13state, and blessed Government, every man is rather to be presum'd to love 14God, because there are no changes, then to take occasion of murmuring at the Editor’s Note15constancie of Gods goodness towards us. But because the first murmuring 16at their present condition, the first Innovation that ever was, was in Heaven; Editor’s Note17The Angels kept not their first Estate: Though as Princes are Gods, so their Editor’s Note18well-govern'd Courts, are Copies, and representations of Heaven; yet the 19Copy cannot be better then the Original: And therefore, as Heaven it self had, Editor’s Note20so all Courts will ever have, some persons, that are under the Increpation of 21this Text, That, Because they have no changes, therefore they fear not God: At 22least, if I shall meet with no conscience, that finds in himself a guiltiness of 23this sin, if I shall give him no occasion of repentance, yet I shall give him 24occasion of praysing, and magnifying that gracious God, which hath preserv'd 25him from such sins, as other men have fallen into, though he have not: For, I | [N1v] 26shall let him see first, The dangerous slipperiness, the concurrence, the Divisio. 27co-incidence of sins; that a habit and custom of sin, slips easily into that Editor’s Note28dangerous degree of Obduration, that men come to sin upon Reason; they Editor’s Note29find a Quia, a Cause, a Reason why they should sin: and then, in a second 30place, he shall see, what perverse and frivolous reasons they assign for their 31sins, when they are come to that; even that which should avert them, they 32make the cause of them, Because they have no changes. And then, lastly, by Editor’s Note33this perverse mistaking, they come to that infatuation, that dementation, as Editor’s Note34that they loose the principles of all knowledge, and all wisedom: The fear of pg 3235God is the beginning of wisedom; and, Because thy have no changes, they fear 36not God.

37Part I. First then, We enter into our first Part, The slipperiness of habitual sin, Editor’s Note38with that note of S. Gregorie, Peccatum cum voce, est culpa cum actione; peccatum Critical Apparatus39cum clamore, est culpa cum libertate; Sinful thoughts produc'd into actions, are 40speaking sins; sinful actions continued into habits, are crying sins. There is a 41sin before these; a speechless sin, a whispering sin, which no body hears, but 42our own conscience; which is, when a sinful thought or purpose is born in Editor’s Note43our hearts, first we rock it, by tossing, and tumbling it in our fancies, and 44imaginations, and by entertaining it with delight and consent, & with remem-45bring, with how much pleasure we did the like sin before, and how much we Editor’s Note46should have, if we could bring this to pass; And as we rock it, so we swathe it, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus47we cover it, with some pretences, some excuses, some hopes of concealing it; 48and this is that, which we call Morosam delectationem, a delight to stand in the 49air and a prospect of a sin, and a loathness to let it go out of our sight. Of this Editor’s Note50sin S. Gregory sayes nothing in this place, but onely of actual sins, which he 51calls speaking; and of habitual, which he calls crying sins. And this is as far, as Editor’s Note52the Schools, or the Casuists do ordinarily trace sin; To find out peccata Editor’s Note53Infantia, speechless sins, in the heart; peccata vocatia, speaking sins, in our 54actions; And peccata clamantia, crying and importunate sins, which will not 55suffer God to take his rest, no nor to fulfil his own Oath, and protestation: He 56hath said, As I live, I would not the death of a sinner; and they extort a death 57from him. But besides these, Here is a farther degree, beyond speaking sins, 58and crying sins; beyond actual sins and habitual sins; here are peccata cum 59ratione, and cum disputatione; we will reason, we will debate, we will dispute it 60out with God, and we will conclude against all his Arguments, that there is a Editor’s Note61Quia, a Reason, why we should proceed and go forward in our sin: Et pudet 62non esse impudentes, as S. Augustine heightens this sinful disposition; Men grow Editor’s Note63asham'd of all holy shamefac'dness, and tenderness toward sin; they grow 64asham'd to be put off, or frighted from their sinful pleasure, with the ordinary Editor’s Note65[N2r] terror of | Gods imaginary judgements; asham'd to be no wiser then S. Paul 661 Cor.1.21. would have them, to be mov'd, or taken hold of, by the foolishness of preaching; 67or to be no stronger of themselves then so, that we should trust to anothers Editor’s Note68Matth. 8. taking of our infirmities, and bearing of our sicknesses; Or to be no richer, or Editor’s Note69Luc. 12. no more provident then so, To sell all, and give it away, and make a treasure in 70Heaven, and all this for fear of Theeves, and Rust, and Canker, and Moths Editor’s Note71here. That which is not allowable in Courts of Justice, in criminal Causes, To 72hear Evidence against the King, we will admit against God; we will hear 73Evidence against God; we will hear what mans reason can say in favor of the 74Delinquent, why he should be condemned; why God should punish the soul Editor’s Note75eternally, for the momentany pleasures of the body: Nay, we suborn witnesses 76against God, and we make Philosophy and Reason speak against Religion, and Editor’s Note77against God; though indeed, Omne verum, omni vero consentiens; whatsoever is 78true in Philosophy, is true in Divinity too; howsoever we distort it, and wrest it pg 3379to the contrary. We hear Witnesses, and we suborn Witnesses against God; Editor’s Note80and we do more; we proceed by Recriminations, and a cross Bill, with a Quia 81Deus, because God does as he does, we may do as we do; Because God does not Critical Apparatus82punish Sinners, we need not forbear sins; whilst we sin strongly, by oppressing Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus83others, that are weaker, or craftily by circumventing others that are simple. 84This is but Leoninum, and Vulpinum, that tincture of the Lyon, and of the Fox, 85that brutal nature that is in us. But when we come to sin, upon reason, and Editor’s Note86upon discourse, upon Meditation, and upon plot, This is Humanum, to 87become the Man of Sin, to surrender that, which is the Form, and Essence of 88man, Reason, and understanding, to the service of sin. When we come to sin Editor’s Note89wisely and learnedly, to sin logically, by a Quia, and an Ergo, that, Because 90God does thus, we may do as we do, we shall come to sin through all the Arts, Editor’s Note91and all our knowledge, To sin Grammatically, to tie sins together in construc-Editor’s Note92tion, in a Syntaxis, in a chaine, and dependance, and coherence upon one Editor’s Note93another: And to sin Historically, to sin over sins of other men again, to sin by 94precedent, and to practice that which we had read: And we come to sin Editor’s Note95Rhetorically, perswasively, powerfully; and as we have sound examples of our 96sins in History, so we become examples to others, by our sins, to lead and 97encourage them, in theirs; when we come to employ upon sin, that which is 98the essence of man, Reason, and discourse, we will also employ upon it, those 99which are the properties of man onely, which are, To speak, and to laugh; we 100will come to speak, and talk, and to boast of our sins, and at last, to laugh and Editor’s Note101jest at our sins; and as we have made sin a Recreation, so we will make a jest of 102our condemnation. And this is the dangerous slipperiness of sin, | to slide by [N2v] 103Thoughts and Actions, and Habits, to contemptuous obduration.

104Now amongst the manifold perversnesses and incongruities of this artificial Part II. 105sinning, of sinning upon Reason, upon a quia, and an ergo, of arguing a cause 106for our sin; this is one, That we never assigne the right cause: we impute our 107sin to our Youth, to our Constitution, to our Complexion; and so we make our 108sin our Nature: we impute it to our Station, to our Calling, to our Course of 109life; and so we make our sin our Occupation: we impute it to Necessity, to 110Perplexity, that we must necessarily do that, or a worse sin; and so we make Editor’s Note111our sin our Direction. We see the whole world is Ecclesia malignantium, a Psal.26.5. Editor’s Note112Synagogue, a Church of wicked men; and we think it a Schismatical thing, to Editor’s Note113separate our selves from that Church, and we are loth to be excommunicated 114in that Church; and so we apply our selves to that, we do as they do, with the Editor’s Note115wicked we are wicked; and so we make our sin our Civility. And though it be 116some degree of injustice, to impute all our particular sins, to the devil himself, Editor’s Note117after a habit of sin hath made us spontaneos dæmones, devils to our selves; yet Chrysost. 118we do come too near an imputing our sins to God himself, when we place such Editor’s Note119an impossibility in his Commandments, as makes us lazie, that because we Editor’s Note120cannot do all, therefore we will do nothing; or such a manifestation and 121infallibility in his Decree, as makes us either secure, or desperate; and say, The 122Decree hath sav'd me, therefore I can take no harm; or, The Decree hath pg 34123damn'd me, therefore I can do no good. No man can assigne a reason in the 124Sun, why his body casts a shadow: why all the place round about him, is 125illumin'd by the Sun, the reason is in the Sun; but of his shadow, there is no Editor’s Note126other reason, but the grosness of his own body: why there is any beam of light, Editor’s Note127any spark of life, in my soul, he that is the Lord of light and life, and would not Editor’s Note128have me die in darkness, is the onely cause; but of the shadow of death, 129wherein I sit, there is no cause, but mine own corruption. And this is the 130cause, why I do sin; but why I should sin, there is none at all.

Editor’s Note131Yet in this Text the Sinner assignes a cause; and it is, Quia non mutationes, Editor’s Note132Because they have no Changes. God hath appointed that earth, which he hath 133given to the sons of men, to rest, and stand still; and that heaven which he 134reserves for those sons of men, who are also the sons of God, he hath 135appointed to stand still too: All that is between heaven and earth, is in per-136petual motion, and vicissitude; but all that is appointed for man, mans Editor’s Note137possession here, mans reversion hereafter, earth and heaven, is appointed for 138rest, and stands still; and therefore God proceeds in his own way, and declares 139his love most, where there are fewest Changes. This rest of heaven, he hath Editor’s Note140[N3r] expressed often, by the | name of a Kingdom, as in that Petition, Thy kingdom 141come: And that rest which is to be derived upon us, here in earth, he expresses Editor’s Note142in the same phrase too, when having presented to the children of Israel, an 143Inventary and Catalogue of all his former blessings, he concludes all, includes 144all in this one, Et prosperata es in regnum, I have advanced thee to be a king-145dom: which form, God hath not onely still preserv'd to us, but hath also Editor’s Note146united Kingdoms together; and to give us a stronger body, and safer from all Editor’s Note147Changes, whereas he hath made up other Kingdoms, of Towns and Cities, he Editor’s Note148hath made us a Kingdom of Kingdoms, and given us as many Kingdoms to 149our Kingdom, as he hath done Cities to some other. Gods gracious purpose Critical Apparatus150then to man, being Rest, and a contented Reposedness in the works of their 151several Callings; and his purpose being declared upon us, in the establishing 152and preserving of such a Kingdom, as hath the best Body, (best united in it 153self, and knit together) and the best Legs to stand upon, (Peace and Plenty) 154and the best Soul to inanimate and direct it, (Truth of Religion) and the best Editor’s Note155Spirits to make all parts answerable and useful to one another, (Wisdom and 156Vigilancie in the Prince, Gratitude and Chearfulness in the Subject:) And Editor’s Note157since God hath gone so far, once in our time already, in expressing his care of 158our Rest and Quiet, as to give us a Change without Change, an alteration of 159Persons, and not of Things, that we saw old things done away, in the Secession 160of one, and all things made new in the Succession of another Soveraign, and 161all this newness done without Innovation; so that, as David says of the whole Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus162Psal. 76.8. earth, we might say again of this Land, Terra tremuit & quievit, The earth Editor’s Note163shak'd, and stood still at once; it was all one act, to have been afraid, and to 164have been instantly secur'd again, since nothing beyond that, nothing equal 165to that Change, can be imagin'd by us from God; may it be ever his gracious 166pleasure, to continue us, the enjoying of our present Rest, without shewing us pg 35167any more Changes. As (to end this Branch) it were a strange enormity, a 168strange perversness in any man, to plant a Garden in any place, therefore, 169because he foresaw an Earthquake in that place, that would disorder and 170discompose his Garden again; or to build in any place therefore, because the 171fire were likeliest to take hold of that street; that is, to make any thing the cause 172of an action, which should naturally enforce the contrary: so is it an irreligious 173distemper, to be the bolder in sin, because we have no Changes, or to defer our 174conversion from sin, till Changes, till Afflictions come. For, Satan knew the 175air, and complexion, and disposition of the world, well enough: he argued not 176impertinently, nor frivolously, for the general, though he were deceived in the Editor’s Note177particular, in Job, when he said to God, Stretch out thy hand, and touch his 2.5. 178bones, and his flesh, and see if he will | not blaspheme thee to thy face. Afflictions, [N3v] 179and Changes in this life, do not always direct us upon God: The displeasure Editor’s Note180of a Prince may make a harsh person more supple, more appliable then 181before; his graces receiv'd may make him more accessible, more equal, more 182obsequious, then before: and losses and forfeitures sustain'd, or threatned, 183may make him more apt to give, to bleed out, to redeem his dangers, then 184before: But these Changes do not always make him an honester man, nor a Editor’s Note185better Christian then before. And therefore, says the Apostle, Study to be quiet; 1 Thess.4.11 186Labour to finde a testmony of Gods love to you, in your present estate, 187and never put your self, either for temporal, or spiritual amendment, upon 188Changes.

189To proceed then: This shutting up of themselves against the fear of God, is Editor’s Note190not meerly quia non mutationes, because there are no changes; but, quia non Editor’s Note191illis, because They have no changes. It is a dangerous preterition, not to bring a 192mans self into Consideration; but to consider no man but himself, to make Editor’s Note193himself the measure of all, is as dangerous as narrowness. The Epigrammatist 194describes the Atheist so, That he desires no better argument to prove that 195there is no God, but that he sees himself, Dum negat ista beatum, prosper well 196enough, though he do not believe this prosperity to proceed from God. What 197miseries soever fall upon others, affect not him. He may have seen, since he 198was born, the greatest Kingdom in Christendom likely to have been broken in Editor’s Note199pieces, and canton'd into petty Seigniories, and so left no Kingdom: he may Editor’s Note200have seen such a danger upon our next neighbours, as that, when the power-201fullest Enemy in Christendom hung over their heads, and lay upon their 202backs, they bred a more dangerous enemy in their own bosomes, and bowels, 203by tearing themselves in pieces, with Differences, in Points of subdivided 204Religion, and impertinent Scruples, unjustly call'd Points of Religion; in 205which, men leave Peace, and Unity, and Charity, the true ways of Salvation, 206and will enquire nothing, but how soon, how early God damn'd them: They Editor’s Note207must know, sub quibus Consulibus, in whose Reign, in whose Mayoralty, Editor’s Note208what hour of the day, and what minute of that hour, Gods eternal Decree of 209Election or Reprobation was made. Many, very many of these Changes he may 210have seen and heard; but all these he hears, as though he heard them out of Editor’s Note211Livie, or out of Berosus, or in Letters from China, or Japan; and not as though 212they concern'd his Time, or his Place, or his Observation. To contract this: pg 36Editor’s Note213We have all been either in Wars, and seen men fall at our right hand, and at our Editor’s Note214left, by the Bullet; or at Sea, and seen our Consort sunk by Tempest, or taken 215by Pyrates; or in the Citie, and seen the Pestilence devour our Parents above 216us, our Children below us, our Friends round about us; or in the Court, and 217[N4r] seen Gods judge-| ments overtake the most secure, and confident: we have all Editor’s Note218seen such Changes as these everywhere; but quia non nobis, because the Bullet, 219the Shipwrack, the Pyrate, the Pestilence, the Judgements have not reach'd us, 220in our particular persons, they have not imprinted the fear of God in us.

221Non habent. And the word of the Text, carries it farther then so: it is not because There 222are no Changes, for they abound; nor because They have had none, for none Editor’s Note223escapes; but it is, Quia non habent, because they have no present, nor imminent 224danger in their contemplation now; because no affliction lies upon them now, 225therefore they are secure. It is not Quia non habuerunt; every person, every 226state, every Church, hath had Changes: Because the Romane Church will 227needs be all the world, we may consider all the world in her, so far; she hath Editor’s Note228had such a Change, as hath awakened other Princes to re-assume, and to 229restore to themselves, and their Crowns, their just Dignities; so she hath had a 230Change in Honour and Estimation. She hath had such a Change, as hath 231contracted and brought her into a narrower chanel, and call'd in her overflow-232ings; so she hath had a Change in Power and Jurisdiction. She hath had such 233a Change, as hath lessened her Temporal treasure everywhere, and utterly 234abolished her imaginary Spiritual treasure, in many places; she hath had a 235change in Means, and Profit, and Revenue: she hath had such a change, as that Editor’s Note236they who by Gods commandment are come out from her, have been equal, even 237in number, to them who have adhered to her; such a change, as hath made her Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus238Doctrine appear, some to be the doctrines of men, and some the doctrines of 239devils: such a change in Reputation, in Jurisdiction, and in Revenue, and in 240Power, and in manifestation of her Disguises, she hath had: But quia non habet, 241because she decays not every day, the Reformation seems to her to be come Editor’s Note242to a period, as high as it shall go: Because she hath a mis-apprehension of Editor’s Note243some faintness, some declinableness towards her again, even in some of our 244Professors themselves, who (as she thinks) come as near to her, as they dare: Editor’s Note245Because she hath gained of late upon many of the weaker sex, women laden 246with sin; and of weaker fortunes, men laden with debts; and of weaker con-247sciences, souls laden with scruples; therefore she imagines that she hath seen Critical Apparatus248the worst, and is at an end of her change; though this be not indeed a running, Editor’s Note249an ebbing back of the main River, but onely a giddy and circular Eddy, in some 250shallow places of the stream, (which stream, God be blessed, runs on still Editor’s Note251currantly, and constantly, and purely, and intemerately, as before) yet because 252her corrections are not multiplied, because her absolute Ruine is not acceler-253ated, she hath some false conceptions of a general returning towards her, and Editor’s Note254[N4v] she sears up herself against all sense of Truth, and all tenderness of | Peace; Editor’s Note255and because she hath rid out one storm, in Luther and his successors, therefore pg 37256she fears not the Lord for any other, Quia non habent, Because she hath no 257changes, now.

Editor’s Note258Habuerunt then, They have had changes; and Habebunt, They shall have Editor’s Note259more, and greater: Impii non stabunt, says David, The wicked shall not stand: Editor’s Note260In how low ground soever they stand, and in how great torment soever they 261stand, yet they shall not stand there, but sink to worse; and at last, non stabunt 262in judicio, They shall not stand in judgement, but fall there, from whence there 263is no rising: Non stabunt: They shall not stand, though they think they shall; 264they shall counterfeit the Seals of the Holy Ghost, and delude themselves with 265imaginary certitudes of Salvation, and illusory apprehensions of Decrees of 266Election: nay, non stabunt, They shall not be able to think that they shall stand: 267that which the Apostle saith, Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he 1 Cor. 10.12. 268fall, belongs onely to the godly; onely they can think, deliberately, and upon 269just examination of the marks and evidences of the Elect, that they shall 270stand: God shall suffer the wicked to sink down, not to a godly sense of their 271infirmity, and holy remorse of the effects thereof; but yet lower then that, to a Editor’s Note272diffident jealousie, to a desperate acknowledgement, that they cannot stand in 273the sight of God: they shall have no true rest at last: they shall not stand; nay, 274they shall not have that half, that false comfort by the way; they shall not be 275able to flatter themselves by the way, with that imagination that they shall 276stand.

277Now, both the ungodly, and godly too, must have Changes: in matter of 278Fortune, changes are common to them both: and then, in all, of all conditions, Editor’s Note279Mortalitas Mutabilitas, says St. Augustine: even this, That we must die, is a Editor’s Note280continual change. The very same word, which is here kalaph, is in Job also: All 14.14. 281the days of my appointed time, till my changing come. And because this word 282which we translate changing, is there spoken in the person of a righteous man, Editor’s Note283some Translators have rendred that place, Donec veniat sancta nativitas mea, Symma. 284Till I be born again: the change, the death of such men, is a better birth: And 285so the Chaldee Paraphrasts, the first Exposition of the Bible, have express'd it, Editor’s Note286Quousque rursus fiam, Till I be made up again by death: He does not stay to call Editor’s Note287the Resurrection a making up; but this death, this dissolution, this change, is a Editor’s Note288new creation; this Divorce is a new Marriage; this very Parting of the soul, is 289an Infusion of a soul, and a Transmigration thereof out of my bosome, into the Editor’s Note290bosom of Abraham. But yet, though it is all this, yet it is a change; Maxima Bernard. 291mutatio est Mutabilitatis in Immutabilitatem, To be changed so, as that we can 292never be changed more, is the greatest change of all. All must be changed so Editor’s Note293far, as to die: yea, those who shall, in some sort, escape that death; those whom Editor’s Note294the last | day shall surprise upon earth, though they shall not die, yet they shall [O1r] Editor’s Note295be changed. Statutum est omnibus, semel mori, All men must die once; we live all Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus296under that Law. But statutum nemini bis mori: since the promise of a Messiah, Heb.9.27. 297there is no Law, no Decree, by which any man must necessarily die twice; a 298Temporal death, and a Spiritual death too. It is not the Man, but the Sinner, Editor’s Note299that dies the second death: God sees sin in that man, or else that man had pg 38300never seen the second death. So we shall all have one change, besides those 301which we have all had; good and bad must die: but the men in this text, shall 302have two. But whatsoever changes are upon others in the world, whatsoever Critical Apparatus303upon themselves; whatsoever they have had, whatsoever they are sure to have; 304yet, Quia non habent, non timent Deum; Because they have none now, they fear 305not God. And so we are come to our third and last Part.

306Part III. They fear not God: This is such a state, as if a man who had been a Editor’s Note307Non timent. Schoolmaster all his life, and taught others to read, or had been a Critick all 308his life, and ingeniosus in alienis, over-witty in other mens Writings, had read 309an Author better, then that Author meant, and should come to have use of his Editor’s Note310Reading to save his life at the Bar, when he had his Book, for some petty Editor’s Note311Felony, and then should be stricken with the spirit of stupidity, and not be able 312to read then. Such is the state of the wisest, of the learnedest, of the mighteiest Editor’s Note313in this world: If they fear not God, they have forgot their first letters; they 314have forgot the basis and foundation of all Power, the reason and the purpose Editor’s Note315of all Learning, the life and the soul of all Counsel and Wisdom: for, The fear 316of God is the beginning of all. They are all fallen into the danger of the Law; 317they have all sinn'd: they are offer'd their Book, the merciful promises of God 318to repentant sinners, in his Word; and they cannot read, they cannot apply 319them, to their comfort: There is Scripture, but not translated, not transferr'd Editor’s Note320to them: there is Gospel, but not preached to them; there are Epistles, but not 321superscribed to them.

Editor’s Note322Psal. 111.10 It is an hereditary Sentence, and hath pass'd from David in his Psalms, to 323Prov. 1.7. Solomon in his Proverbs, and then to him that glean'd after them both, the Editor’s Note324Ecclus 1.16. Author of Ecclesiasticus, The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. All three Editor’s Note325profess all that, and more then that. It is Blessedness it self, says the father, Editor’s Note326David; Blessedness it self, says the son, Solomon; and Plenitudo Sapientiæ, and 327Omnis Sapientia, says the other, The fulness of wisdom, and the onely Editor’s Note32828. wisdom. Job had said it before them all, Ecce, timor Domini, ipsa est sapientia; Editor’s Note32933.6. The fear of the Lord, is wisdom it self: And the Prophet Esai said it after, of 330Ezechias, There shall be stability of thy times, strength, salvation, wisdom, and 331knowledge; for, the fear of the Lord shall be thy treasure. It is our supply, if we 332should fear want, and it is our reason that we cannot fear want; for, he that Editor’s Note333[O1v] fears | God, fears nothing else. As therefore the Holy Ghost hath placed the 334beginning of wisdom in this fear; so hath he the consummation and perfection of 335this wisdom, even in the perfect pattern of all wisdom, in the person of Christ Critical Apparatus336Esai.11.2. himself, The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon thee, the spirit of wisdom and 337understanding, the spirit of counsel and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of the 338fear of God. For, without this fear, there is no courage, no confidence, no 339assurance: And therefore Christ begun his Passion with a fear, in his Agony, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus340Tristis anima, My soul is heavie; but that fear delivered him over to a present Editor’s Note341conformity to the will of God, in his Veruntamen, Yet not my will, but thine Editor’s Note342be done: And he ended his Passion with a fear, Eli, Eli, My God, my God, why pg 39343hast thou forsaken me? and that fear deliver'd him over to a present assurance, Editor’s Note344In manus tuas Domine, confidently to commend his spirit into his hands, whom 345he seem'd to be afraid of.

Editor’s Note346Since then the Holy Ghost, whose name is Love; since God, who is Love it 347self, disposes us to this fear, we may see in that, That neither God himself, nor Editor’s Note348those of whom God said, Ye are gods, that is, all those who have Authority over 349others, can be lov'd so as they should, except they be fear'd, so as they should 350be too: If you take away due Fear, you take away true Love. Even that fear of Editor’s Note351God, which we use to call servile fear, which is but an apprehension of 352punishment, and is not the noblest, the perfectest kinde of fear, yet it is a fear, Editor’s Note353which our Saviour counsels us to entertain; Fear him that can cast soul and body Matth. 10. Editor’s Note354into hell; even that fear, is some beginning of wisdom. That fear Job had use of, Editor’s Note355when he said, Quid faciam cum surrexerit ad judicandum Deus? Here I may lay 31. 356hold upon means of Restitution; but when the Lord shall raise himself to Editor’s Note357judgement, how shall I stand? So also had David use of this fear, A judiciis tuis Psal. 119. 358timui: However I was ever confident in thy mercy, yet I was in fear of thy 359judgement. It is that fear which St. Basil directs us to, upon those words, Editor’s Note360Timorem Domini docebo vos, I will teach you the fear of the Lord, Cogita Psal. 33. 361profundum barathrum, To learn to fear God, he sends us to the meditation of 362the torments of hell. And so it is that fear, which wrought that effect in Editor’s Note363St. Hierome: Ego ob Gehennæ metum carcere isto me damnavi; For fear of that 364execution, I have shut my self up in this prison; for fear of perishing in the 365next world, I banish my self from this: There is a beginning, there is a great 366degree of wisdom, even in this fear.

367Now, as the fear of Gods punishments disposes us to love him, so that fear 368which the Magistrate imprints, by the execution of his Laws, establishes that Editor’s Note369love which preserves him, from all disestimation and irreverence: for, whom 370the Enemy does not fear, the Subject does not love. As no Peace is safe enough, 371where there is no thought of War; so the love of man towards God, and | those [O2r] 372who represent him, is not permanently setled, if there be not a reverential fear, 373a due consideration of greatness, a distance, a distinction, a respect of Rank, 374and Order, and Majestie. If there be not a little fear, by Justice at home, and 375by power and strength abroad, mingled in it, it is not that love, which God 376requires, to be first directed upon himself, and then reflected upon his Editor’s Note377Stewards and Vice-gerents: for, as every Society is not Friendship, so every 378Familiarity is not Love.

379But, to conclude: As he will be fear'd, so he will be fear'd, no otherwise, 380then as he is God: Non timuerunt Deum, is the increpation of the Text, They 381feared not God. It is timor Dei, and not timor Jehova: God is not here expressed Editor’s Note382by the name of Jehovah, that unexpressible and unutterable, that incom-383prehensible and unimaginable name of Jehovah. God calls not upon us, to be 384consider'd as God in himself, but as God towards us; not as he is in heaven, Editor’s Note385but as he works upon earth: And here, not in the School, but in the Pulpit; not Editor’s Note386in Disputation, but in Application. It is not timor Jehova, nor it is not timor 387Adonai: God does not call himself in this place, The Lord: for, to be Lord, to be Editor’s Note388proprietary of all, this is potestas tam utendi quam abutendi, It gives the Lord of pg 40389that thing power, to do, absolutely, what he will with that which is his: And so, 390God, as absolute Lord, may damn without respect of sin, if he will; and save 391without respect of faith, if he will. But God is pleased to proceed with us, 392according to that Contract which he hath made with us, and that Law which Editor’s Note393he hath given to us, in those two Tables, Tantummodo crede, Onely believe, and Editor’s Note394thy faith shall save thee; and, Fac hoc & vives, Live well, and thy good works Editor’s Note395shall make sure thy salvation. Lastly, God does not call himself here Dominum 396exercituum, The Lord of hosts; God would not onely be consider'd, and serv'd 397by us, when he afflicts us with any of his swords, Famine, War, Pestilence, 398Malice, or the like; but the fear requir'd here, is to fear him as God, and as Editor’s Note399God presented in this name, Elohim; which, though it be a name primarily 400rooted in power and strength, (for El is Deus fortis, The powerful God; and as 401there is no love without fear, so there is no fear without power) yet properly it 402signifies his Judgment, and Order, and Providence, and Dispensation, and 403Government of his creatures. It is that name, which goes thorow all Gods 404whole work of the Creation, and disposition of all creatures, in the first of 405Genesis: in all that, he is call'd by no other name then this, the name God; not 406by Jehovah, to present an infinite Majestie; nor by Adonai, to present an Editor’s Note407absolute power; nor by Tzebaoth, to present a Force, or Conquest: but onely in 408the name of God, his name of Government. All ends in this; To fear God, is to 409adhere to him, in his way, as he hath dispensed and notified himself to us; that 410[O2v] is, as God is manifested in Christ, | in the Scriptures, and applied to us out of 411those Scriptures, by the Church: not to rest in Nature without God, nor in 412God without Christ, nor in Christ without the Scriptures, nor in our private 413interpretation of Scripture, without the Church. Almighty God fill us with 414these fears, these reverences; that we may reverence him, who shall at last 415bring us, where there shall be no more changes; and hath already plac'd us in Editor’s Note416such a Government, as being to us a Type and Representation of the Kingdom 417of heaven, we humbly beg, may evermore continue with us, without changes, 418in Government, or in Religion.

419AMEN.pg 41

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
Text. F26, N1r-O2v (no. 7, 89–100). There are no other witnesses. No copy collated contains any stop-press corrections. Compared to some other F26 texts, this sermon has very few typesetting errors requiring emendation (ll. 39, 47, 296, 340, tns); only one of those (l. 47) is likely to be a MS copyist's error. PS (i. 327) venture several adjustments to spelling and punctuation that I deem unnecessary; the most substantive are recorded in the apparatus.
Editor’s Note
Headnote. This sermon and the next in this vol. are unique among D's court sermons for having been preached neither during his routine Apr. service as chaplain, nor during the court Lent series. The Nov. appearance can be explained with some certainty, however, by the disruption to the chaplains' rota caused by the king's progress to and from Scotland (late Mar. to Aug. 1617). James took select chaplains in his entourage, but not D, who may therefore have served in Nov. as a substitute for, or in exchange with, one of the chaplains who had served on progress earlier in the year. Or perhaps D filled the vacancy created by the death in late Oct. of one of those who had attended in Scotland, Robert Wilkinson (Chamberlain, ii. 107). The union of the English and Scottish Crowns, and the king's project for further ecclesiastical conformity between the two kingdoms, strongly colour this sermon, particularly in the fulsome encomium to James's accession and the Union (ll. 131–88 and cmts), coupled with dire warnings of the fate of kingdoms partitioned by war or religious dispute (ll. 197–209 and cmts).
Another contextual event that must have shadowed the sermon in delivery and reception, or even composition, was the death of Sir Ralph Winwood, Secretary of State, on 28 Oct. after a short and sudden illness. Chamberlain (ii. 108–10) describes in detail the court's affectionate distress for Winwood during his illness, and, three days before D's sermon, how 'all the speech is who shall succeed him'. A sermon on 'change', which dwelt on both its political and spiritual dangers, was therefore highly apt. It might be thought unlikely that D chose this text and wrote the whole sermon in the mere seven days after Winwood's death. 'Part I', however, recycles a surprisingly large amount of material (D's own prose, as well as arguments and sources) from the sermon preached at court in Apr. 1616 (see this vol., Sermon 2; the related passages are documented in the cmts to the present sermon, at ll. 15–17, 28, 37–44, 53–61, 117). That this sermon is shorter, by almost 100 lines, than an average of the two previous surviving court sermons may also suggest pressure of time in composition. Further, the sermon's exordium—with its unusually direct application to 'a Court' (l. 11)—and its last sentence (ll. 413–18)—which returns to the same diction and theme—might have been added with the immediate context in mind. Regardless of the degree of direct response to Winwood's death by D in writing the sermon, its delivery must surely have been met in the chapel royal with a heightened frisson of applicability.
As in Sermons 1 and 2 in this vol., D anatomizes impenitent, habitual sinfulness from an OT text—here the Psalmist's complaint against the complacency of those who, because their lives remain undisturbed, persist in sin; here, too, Job provides important moral and textual counterpoint. Two aspects of the sermon merit further note. First, aesthetically, D's prose is marked not just by the irony and even satire found in the preceding court sermons, but also by a greater freedom and expansiveness, with thematic imagery cast in more elaborate parallel syntax. The long early paragraph on 'the slipperiness of habitual sin' (ll. 37–103), rich in striking exempla, rises to a great peroration, which parodically applies the best of law, philosophy, divinity, history, and finally rhetoric itself to the impenitent defence of sinfulness. Second, D is far more daring with doctrine and politics than hitherto at court, perhaps emboldened by the success of his first appearance at Paul's Cross on Accession Day (24 Mar.; PS i.3). That sermon was 'exceedingly well liked generally, the rather for that he did Quene Elizabeth great right' (Chamberlain, ii. 67). This sermon has its cognate in the praise for the peaceful succession, but is in emphasis far more directed to King James and the Union. Doctrinally, D also ventures opinions both sharp and balanced on the increasingly vexed points of predestination, chastising hard-line Calvinist security in 'Decrees of Election' (ll. 265–6) but immediately asserting comfort for those graced with 'marks and evidences of the Elect' (l. 269). Similarly, he ventures a summary of Christianity which holds in perfect equipoise the necessity of both faith and good works (ll. 393–5 and cmts). Sustained criticism of the RC Church also appears here in a triumphalist account of the success of the Reformation, including frank reflections on motives for conversion to Rome (ll. 226–57 and cmts). Finally, there emerges clearly for the first time a leitmotif of so many of his later sermons, the necessary and complete integration of fearful respect for the 'Rank, and Order, and Majestie' of God and king (l. 373–4), which responds to James's desire for uniformity between the English and Scottish Churches, and looks forward to the doctrinal disputes soon to be addressed at the Synod of Dort (1618–19; see this vol., Sermon 5, Headnote).
Editor’s Note
Sources. The sermon is, compared to nos. 1 and 2 in this vol., light in its use of patristic or other scholarly sources, which may reflect the amount of time devoted to preparation (see Headnote). Quotations from Bernard, Chrysostom, Augustine, and Martial are fleeting; the rather more exotic commentary of Richard of St Victor on S. of S. provides an epithet tactfully shorn of the original's frankness about sex (ll. 46–8). The scholarly digression on a single Hebr. word from his text—a habit of these early court sermons—is taken from the contemporary commentary on the Psalms by the Jesuit Jean de Lorin (Lorinus) (ll. 280–6 and cmts). Otherwise, in this sermon D relies noticeably more on the multiplication of scriptural quotation to advance his arguments (ll. 324–60 and cmts).
Editor’s Note
Further reading. For the king's Scottish progress and court preaching in 1617, see Sermons at Court, 127–8, and 'Calendar', in loc.
Critical Apparatus
1–5 A SERMON … 1617. ] ~. SERMON VII. F26
Editor’s Note
5. Novemb. … 1617: Sun., Trinity 20; for the anomaly in D's month of attendance, and other events at court around this date, see Headnote.
Editor’s Note
6–7. Psal. … not God: AV, Geneva.
Editor’s Note
8–10. In … state: in both its parallel syntax and diction ('Prison', 'wither'd'), an anticipation of the opening of the now famous passage on the weight of God's wrath in the second prebend sermon at St Paul's, 29 Jan. 1625/6, PS vii.i.182–7; Prebend, 91–111.
Editor’s Note
9. Galley … slavery: becoming a galley slave was a real risk for English mariners in the Mediterranean, who were often captured and held for ransom by Ottoman traders; collections for redemption of captives were routinely taken at charity sermons.
Editor’s Note
15–17. first murmuring … Estate: cf. this vol., Sermon 2, ll. 283–6 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
17. Princes are Gods: cf. Ps. 82: 6.
Editor’s Note
18. Courts … Heaven: the court or palace as a metaphor for the Jewish Temple, God's presence, or heaven, occurs in the Pss. (cf. 65: 4, 84: 2), and when the comparison is drawn with earthly courts, it is, as here, to the latter's detriment (cf. Ps. 84:10, 'A day in thy courts is better then a thousand'); medieval Christianity elaborated the iconography of the court of heaven (e.g. 'Christ the King', 'Mary Queen of Heaven', 'attendant' angels and saints). D must also have an eye here to the arrangement and decor of the chapel royal as a microcosmic 'representation' of heaven, from star-spangled ceiling, to reigning monarch in an elevated closet, to attending courtier-'saints' below (see Introduction, pp. xxv–xxvii). Cf. also D's 'representation' of the royal court as a kind of hell, far from heaven, in 'Satyre III' ('No more can Princes courts, though there be few / better pictures of vice, teach me vertue', ll. 71–2).
Editor’s Note
20. Increpation: 'reproof, rebuke' (OED).
Editor’s Note
28. Obduration: 'becoming obdurate, hardened in sin, or insensible to moral influence' (OED 1).
Editor’s Note
29. a Quia … sin: see this vol., Sermon 2, ll. 87–92 cmt.
Editor’s Note
33. dementation: 'the fact or condition of being demented; madness, infatuation' (OED, citing this as the first use; but cf. Urbanus Rhegius, trans. 'Ric. Ro.', An Homelye or Sermon of Good and Euill Angels (1583), STC 20844, B8V: 'a most great and horrible, bewitching dementation or dooting, and blinding of theyr sences').
Editor’s Note
34–5. The fear … wisedom: Prov. 9: 10.
Editor’s Note
38–9. Peccatum … libertate: Lat., lit., 'a sin with a voice is guilt in action; a sin with a crying out is guilt [done] with abandon' Gregory the Great, Liber Regulae Pastoralis, 3.31 (PL 77. 112D); cf. this vol., Sermon 2, ll. 136–7 and cmt.
Critical Apparatus
39 thoughts] ed.; thoughths F26
Editor’s Note
43–4. fancies … delight: cf. this vol., Sermon 2, ll. 342–51 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
46–8. rock … delectationem: the Lat. epithet ('an obstinate delight', where delectatio would be closer to 'sexual fantasizing' in modern Eng.) is unique to Richard of St Victor's In Cantica Canticorum Explicatio, 25, in a passage that delineates degrees of culpability for sexual desire, paraphrased here by D, though he suppresses the original's reference to voluntary and involuntary ejaculation: 'Si ergo contingat ex delectatione, mortale est, etiamsi non voluntarium sit quando contingit, si culpa mortalis praecessit, familiaritatis, cogitationis, aspectus et hujus-modi, de qua occasionem habuerit morosa delectatio per quam accidit. Quia enim haec fuerunt voluntaria, et per haec morosa delectatio habita, non excusatur ipsum peccatum, etiamsi contra voluntatem contingat. Si quis autem post morosam delectationem de ea contritus fuerit, si postea contingat ei pollutio, et iterum redit delectatio, mortale est' (PL 196. 480B-C; 'If [ejaculation] comes from delight, it is mortal, even if it is not voluntary when it happens, if it was preceded by a sinful fault, such as familiarity, thoughts, looks, and the like, from which occasion comes the obstinate delight by which it happens. Therefore, because this is voluntary, and comes about by this obstinate delight, this sin cannot be excused, even if it comes against the will. Even if after obstinate delight one is sorry for it, if afterwards pollution [ejaculation] comes, and desire returns, it is mortal').
Critical Apparatus
47 concealing] F2610 pen corr.; coveraling F26, PS
Editor’s Note
47. concealing [tn]: PS (i. 327) suggest but do not adopt this correction of F26 'coveraling'; it was made confidently, however, by the anon. corrector of F2610. Orthographically, secretary 'v' and 'e' ('coveraling') and 'n' and 'c' ('concealing') can be easily confused.
Editor’s Note
50–1. Gregory … crying sins: cf. ll 38–9 cmt.
Editor’s Note
52. the Schools: medieval scholastic theologians who systematically applied the rules of logic to questions and contradictions in Scripture and morals; the consummation of the method and form was Aquinas, ST. D shares the Renaissance humanist suspicion of the scholastic emphasis on logic over languages and rhetoric.
Editor’s Note
52. the Casuists: adherents of a branch of moral theology that rigorously applied moral principles to particular cases (hence, 'casuistry'); although he was known as a 'mystical' theologian, cf. Richard of St Victor's treatment of the 'case' of involuntary ejaculation (l. 46–8 cmt).
Editor’s Note
52–4. peccata Infantia … clamantia: D's own expansion (in rhetorical terms, gradatio) of Gregory's commentary on 'crying sins' (see ll. 38–9, 50–1, cmts); 'speechless' sins are 'Infantia', from etym. of Lat., infans, 'without speech'.
Editor’s Note
53–61. peccata … sin: a recapitulation (with only slight adjustments to some of the same key evidence) of this vol., Sermon 2, ll. 79–94 and cmts. Sins of 'reason' and 'disputation' ('cum ratione … disputatione') adapts the Terentian tag 'insanire cum ratione' (this vol., Sermon 2, ll. 109–10 and cmt), and D devotes much of the long passage of the earlier sermon to the follies of sinning 'because' (Lat., 'Quia ') of a host of excuses.
Editor’s Note
61–2. Et … impudentes: 'one is ashamed not to be ashamed' Augustine, Confessions, 2.9.17 (PL 32. 682); the sharp irony of Augustine's formula inspires D's ensuing catalogue (ll. 62–71) of moral inversions.
Editor’s Note
63. shamefac'dness: modesty.
Editor’s Note
63. tenderness toward: sensitivity to.
Editor’s Note
65. imaginary: 'imaginable; that can be imagined' (OED adj. and n., 4, citing 1624 as the first use); opposite to the dominant sense ('having no real existence', OED 1), thus adding to the passage's ironic moral inversions.
Editor’s Note
68. taking … sicknesses: Matt. 8: 17.
Editor’s Note
69–70. sell … Moths: Luke 12: 33–4; but an inexact reference, as 'Rust' is from the version of the same saying at Matt. 6: 19–20.
Editor’s Note
71–2. not … King: since criminal courts administered the king's own justice (cf. 'Crown Court'), it would be a logical impossibility to try, or present evidence against, the king there.
Editor’s Note
75. momentany: 'relating to the moment, momentary; transitory; evanescent' (OED).
Editor’s Note
75. suborn: 'to bribe or unlawfully procure (a person) to make accusations or give evidence against another' (OED 1.b).
Editor’s Note
77–8. Omne … too: variant of the common scholastic (originally Aristotelian) syllogism, 'Omne verum, omni vero consonat'. I have not elsewhere encountered D's form with the synonym 'consentiens'. D quotes the same in two other sermons, (both undated; PS iii.4.678–80; v.12.6), in the first giving the lit. trans., 'whatsoever is true in itselfe agrees with every other truth'; in the early modern period it was often deployed to assert, as here, the congruity of human sciences with theology ('Divinity'); cf. Petrus de Alliaco, Concordantia Astronomiæ cum Theologia (Augsburg, 1490), a2r; Lancelot Andrewes, XCVI Sermons (1629), STC 606, 3V1v.
Editor’s Note
80. Recriminations: 'an accusation, esp. one made in response to an accuser' (OED, 'recrimination', 2).
Editor’s Note
80. cross Bill: 'A bill filed in Chancery by a defendant against the plaintiff or other co-defendants in the same suit' (OED, 'cross-bill', n.1, a, citing 1637 as the first use).
Critical Apparatus
82 sins; whilst] sins. Whilst PS
Critical Apparatus
83 simple.] ~, PS
Editor’s Note
83–95. craftily … nature: the rapaciousnous of the lion and the fox were commonplaces, but here D also probably refers to the Aesopian fable of the Lion and the Wolf, where the Fox 'craftily' contrives the Lion's 'brutal' killing of the Wolf, the morals (apt here) being that 'It becommeth not thée to prouoke thy Lord to wrathe' and 'He which continually diggeth pittes, at length turneth him selfe therein' (Thomas Blague, A Schole of wise conceytes (1572), STC 3115, C6r–v).
Editor’s Note
86. Humanum: Lat., human.
Editor’s Note
89. logically … Ergo: according to the rules of logic, where 'Quia' (Lat., 'because') and 'Ergo' (Lat., 'therefore') are stock categories of syllogisms and argument.
Editor’s Note
91. Grammatically: according to the rules of grammar.
Editor’s Note
92. Syntaxis: 'late L., and Gr. σύνταξιϛ‎ … to arrange' (OED etym.), an alternative form, increasingly obsolete in D's period, of 'syntax' here both 'the arrangement of words (in their appropriate forms) by which their connection and relation in a sentence are shown', and 'the department of grammar which deals with the established usages of grammatical construction and the rules deduced therefrom' (OED, 'syntax', 2).
Editor’s Note
93. Historically: according to the use of written histories, the study of exemplary men and their deeds.
Editor’s Note
95. Rhetorically: according to the rules of rhetoric, the art of persuading with words, written or spoken.
Editor’s Note
101–2. Recreation … condemnation: cf. this vol., Sermon 2, Headnote and ll. 461–87.
Editor’s Note
111. Ecclesia malignantium: Ps. 25: 5 (Vulg.; 'congregation of euill doers', AV 'Psal. 26. 5.' (in marg.); see next cmt).
Editor’s Note
112. Synagogue, a Church: although the two are linked in OT/NT typology, D's use of 'Synagogue' as a synonym for 'Church' ('Ecclesia', see prev. cmt) seems his own deliberate Hebraism; cf. 'congregation' (AV, BCP), 'assemblie' (Geneva).
Editor’s Note
113–14. excommunicated in: i.e. excommunicated from.
Editor’s Note
115. Civility: 'conformity to the principles of social order, behaviour befitting a citizen; good citizenship' (OED 7).
Editor’s Note
117. spontaneos dæmones: another echo, here in the plural, from this vol., Sermon 2 (l. 374 and cmt).
Editor’s Note
119. impossibility … Commandments: cf. Matt. 5: 19.
Editor’s Note
120–3. manifestation … good: typically balanced satire against the two extreme results of strict predestinarian Calvinism, whereby the 'Decree' of fore-ordained election to salvation or damnation produces either sinful pride or despair in the believer; cf. ll. 203–9 and cmts.
Editor’s Note
126. grosness: 'thickness, density, materiality, solidity' (OED, 'grossness', 3).
Editor’s Note
127. Lord … life: common OT and NT attributes of God; the epithets are not strictly scriptural, but cf. Ps. 27: 4.
Editor’s Note
128. shadow of death: Ps. 23: 4 (AV and BCP).
Editor’s Note
131. Quia non mutationes: Lat.; D's trans. from AV Ps. 55: 19, 'because [they have] no changes'; cf. T-J Ps. 55: 20, 'quibus non sunt mutationes'. Vulg. (Ps. 54: 20, iuxta LXX) has: 'non enim est illis commutatio'.
Editor’s Note
132–6. earth … motion: summary of Ptolemaic cosmology, where earth and the heavens are fixed, and the sun and the planets move between them. Cf. IC, 17–19; 'Epithalamion', ll. 186–92; 'To the Countesse of Bedford ('T'have written then')', ll. 37–42; 'The First Anniversary', ll. 207–12.
Editor’s Note
137. reversion: 'the right of succeeding to the possession of something, or of obtaining something at a future time' (OED n.1, 3.a).
Editor’s Note
140–1. Thy kingdom come: Matt. 6:10, Luke 11:2; one of the petitions in the Lord's Prayer, said at Morning and Evening Prayer and Holy Communion (BCP).
Editor’s Note
142–4. presented … kingdom : Ezek. 16: 13, quoting neither AV ('thou didst prosper into a kingdome'), nor Geneva ('thou didst grow vp into a kingdome'); the Lat. is closer to T-J ('& prosperata in regno') than Vulg. ('et profecisti in regnum').
Editor’s Note
146. united Kingdoms: of England and Scotland, united at the accession to the former of James VI and I (1603), refreshed in the national consciousness by the recent royal visit to Scotland (see Headnote).
Editor’s Note
147. Kingdoms … Cities: most familiar, in the period, in the ducal city-states of Italy and Germany.
Editor’s Note
148–9. Kingdom … Kingdom: sharp antanaclasis, strictly speaking the form of a chiasmus ('Kingdom' … 'Kingdoms' … 'Kingdoms' … 'Kingdom'), which drives home the result of the Union of the Crowns (see l. 146 cmt), perhaps with further reference to the royal style's sovereignty expressed (somewhat anachronistically) over England, Scotland, Ireland, and France (cf. next cmt).
Critical Apparatus
150 man] men PS
Editor’s Note
155–6. Wisdom … Prince: 'Wisdom', particularly that of Solomon, was a favoured attribute of James VI and I; cf, among many examples, John Williams, Great Britains Salomon A sermon preached at the magnificent funerall, of the most high and mighty king, Iames (1625), STC 26723. Assertion of the king's 'Vigilancie' is probably intended to calm fears related to James's leniency to RCs with the advent of the planned Spanish Match for Prince Charles.
Editor’s Note
157–61. our time … Innovation: praise for the peaceful 'Succession' of James after the death ('Secession') of Elizabeth, without any 'Innovation', particularly in religion; the theme of 'Change without Change' was conventional in sermons immediately upon Elizabeth's death; see Sermons at Court, 101–6.
Critical Apparatus
162 Psal. 76. 8.] ed.; Psal. 76.9. F26
Editor’s Note
162–3. Terra … once: D's Lat. is from the Clementine Vulg. (Ps. 75: 9, 'terra tremuit et quievit'), which only BCP follows closely (Ps. 76: 8, 'the earth trembled and was still'); cf. T-J (Ps. 76: 9, 'terra timet, & quieta sidit') and AV (Ps. 76: 8, 'the earth feared and was still').
Editor’s Note
163–4. afraid … again: Cf. D's other extended account of the mixed emotions of 25 Mar. 1603 in his first Paul's Cross sermon eight months earlier (PS i.3.1242–71); see Headnote.
Editor’s Note
177–8. Stretch … face: Job 2: 5 (Geneva).
Editor’s Note
180–5. Prince … Christian: a cautious opinion of different forms of royal justice, delicately balancing the advantages of strict punishment against mercy or even indulgence; the language of 'losses and forfeitures' and 'dangers' (ll. 182–3) strongly suggests the specific case of penal laws against RC recusants.
Editor’s Note
185. Study … quiet: 1 Thess. 4: 11 (Geneva).
Editor’s Note
190–1. quia non illis: Lat., 'because they do not'.
Editor’s Note
191. preterition: 'the act of passing over something without notice; omission, disregard' (OED 2).
Editor’s Note
193–6. Epigrammatist … God: 'The Epigrammatist' is the Roman poet Martial; D's Lat. tag ('though he denies this prosperity'), epitomizes Epigrams 4.21: 'Nullos esse deos, inane caelum / adfirmat Segius: probatque, quod se / factum, dum negat haec, videt beatum.' ('"There are no gods: heaven is empty," Sergius asserts; and he proves it, for in the midst of these denials he sees himself made rich!').
Editor’s Note
199. canton'd … Seigniories: subdivided into small feudal domains (cf. OED, 'canton', v., 1.b; 'seigniory', 3); 'petty' carries both the etymological sense of 'small' (Fr., petit), but also the meaning 'of lesser importance', 'insubordinate' (OED, 'petty', adj. and n., 1.a). The cantons of the Swiss confederation were a commonplace example in the period. Though loosely hypothetical here, 'canton'd' may have overtones of the division of the Holy Roman Empire between Habsburg interests in Spain and Germany, but should be considered primarily as a counterpoint to D's preceding encomium to the stability of the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England (ll. 141–67 and cmts).
Editor’s Note
200–4. neighbours … Religion: the seven northern Protestant provinces of the Low Countries (Netherlands) rebelled against the RC rule of Philip of Spain in the Eighty Years War, begun in 1568, which established, though under constant threat from Spain ('the power-fullest Enemy'), the Seven United Provinces; doctrinal dispute between Calvinist and anti-Calvinist ('Remonstrant') factions in the new northern league was bitter, and soon directly involved King James and English theologians at the Synod of Dort (1618–19). Particularly striking here is D's suggestion that internecine doctrinal disputes are more ominous than external military threats. See Headnote, and cf. the engagement with Remonstrant theology in this vol., Sermon 5 (Headnote and Sources).
Editor’s Note
207. sub quibus Consulibus: Lat., 'under which Consul' (i.e. in Roman history or law).
Editor’s Note
208–9. Decree … Reprobation: see ll. 120–3 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
211. out of Berosus: Berosus was a Babylonian historian of the 3rd century bce. In 1498 the Italian humanist Annius of Viterbo published alleged discoveries of new Berosian texts; critics exposed these as forgeries in one of the great causes célèbres of 16th-century scholarship, so for D here 'out of Berosus' is matter not only distant, but also dubious.
Editor’s Note
211. Letters … Japan: the climax of a gradatio of increasingly improbable or outlandish sources, here from the farthest part of the known world, reached by Spanish Jesuit missionaries only in 1549, and known to the English only through early travel narratives, often at second hand.
Editor’s Note
213–17. We … confident: D himself had first-hand experience of these scenarios: military service and sea voyages with the Earl of Essex's expeditionary force to Cádiz in 1596 (Bald, 80–92); the great plague of 1592–4, which interrupted his studies at Lincoln's Inn and took the life of his younger brother Henry (Bald, 56–80); and the recent sudden death of Secretary Winwood (see Headnote).
Editor’s Note
214. Consort: 'a ship sailing in company with another' (OED n.1, 2).
Editor’s Note
218. quia non nobis: Lat., 'because not to us'.
Editor’s Note
223–5. Quia … non habuerunt: Lat., 'because they do not have … because they have not had'.
Editor’s Note
228–40. awakened … Disguises: begins the first extended passage of anti-Catholic satire in D's surviving court sermons. The final clause here ('such … hath had', ll. 239–40) summarizes both the structure and content of the preceding parallel vignettes of the Reformation's diminution of Rome's sovereignty over kings, and its wealth, temporal jurisdiction, membership, and theology. The court reception of D's Protestant triumphalism may have been strengthened by the sensational arrival in England of the Venetian convert Marc Antonio de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalato, in December 1616; in the year of this sermon he was appointed Dean of Windsor and granted honorary doctorates from both Cambridge and Oxford.
Editor’s Note
236. come … from her: cf. Rev. 18: 4.
Critical Apparatus
238 Doctrine] Doctrines PS
Editor’s Note
238. doctrines of men: Col. 2: 22.
Editor’s Note
238–9. doctrines of devils: 1 Tim. 4: 1.
Editor’s Note
242. period: full stop, end.
Editor’s Note
243. declinableness: inclination; but the use of the negative construction ('de-') implies a moral falling-off.
Editor’s Note
243–4. our … dare: those who profess Protestantism, but incline towards RC theology and ceremonial; D seems to have less in mind here lay 'church papists' (who outwardly conformed to the CofE but privately practised as RCs) than those anti-Calvinist and ceremonialist higher clergy, like Lancelot Andrewes or John Overall, whose theology and style of worship occasionally inspired reports from RC ambassadors of their alleged RC sympathies.
Editor’s Note
245–7. Because … scruples: D here focuses on actual converts to Roman Catholicism, alleging three polemically conventional motives (gender, financial distress, and moral scruple), for which see Michael Questier, Conversion, Politics and Religion in England, 1580–1625 (Cambridge, 1996). The cases here are perhaps insufficiently specific for individuals, though there had been conversions to Rome close to D and the court, including the king's chaplain Benjamin Carier in 1613, which sparked a print debate in 1615. Among lay converts, one of the most prominent (and a friend of D) was Sir Tobie Matthew, who had returned to London from exile in May and was, in this year, implicated in the conversion of the Countess of Exeter.
Editor’s Note
245–6. women … sin: strongly rooted in the verse here partially quoted (1 Tim. 3: 6): AV 'For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and leade captiue silly women laden with sinnes'; cf. also Geneva gloss, 'As, monkes, friers, and suche hypocrites'.
Critical Apparatus
248 not] PS; but F26
Editor’s Note
249. giddy: 'incapable of or indisposed to serious thought or steady attention; easily carried away by excitement' (OED adj., 3.a, citing D, 'Giddie fantastique Poëts' ('Satyre I', l. 10) as the first use); cf. PS x.6.202–4: 'And with these Dews of Apparitions and Revelations, did the Romane Church make our fathers drunk and giddy'
Editor’s Note
251. currantly: a rare example of syllepsis, or punning, where no fewer than three senses are suggested: 'in the manner of a flowing stream', 'now, at the present time', and 'with a common current or direction of evidence, opinion' (OED, 'currently', 1, 2, 3).
Editor’s Note
251. intemerately: 'in an intemerate or inviolate manner; purely' (OED, 'intemerate', Derivatives, 'intemerately', citing only D, 'But he cannot take the water so sincerely, so purely, so intemerately from the channell as from the fountaine head' (PS v.17.829–31)).
Editor’s Note
254. sears up: 'to close (a wound, vein, etc.) by actual cautery' (OED, 'sear', v., 3.c, 'to sear up'); but cf. also 'chiefly after 1 Tim. iv. 2, to render (the conscience) incapable of feeling' (OED, 'sear', v., 3.b).
Editor’s Note
255. rid out: ridden out, weathered.
Editor’s Note
258. Habuerunt … Habebunt: Lat., 'they have had … they will have'.
Editor’s Note
259. Impii non stabunt: Lat.; D's own trans. from AV Ps. 1: 5, 'the vngodly shall not stand in the iudgement'; cf. Vulg. 'non resurgent impii', and T-J 'non exsurgent improbii'.
Editor’s Note
260–6. In … stand: a gradatio that incrementally eliminates any possibility that the wicked can avoid the change that must come at the Last Judgment: they cannot stand but will fall (ll. 260–3); they will fall even when they think they can stand (ll. 263–6); and finally they will not even be able 'to think that they shall stand' (l. 266). The ironies are intensified by D's insistence that only the godly can honestly profess to have 'the Seals of the Holy Ghost' (l. 264; cf. Eph. 1: 13), or proof of election to salvation. Cf. John Udall, Amendment of Life (1584), STC 24489, D2v: 'that whomsoeuer God calleth he sealeth with his holy spirit, it resteth that euery one of vs examine himselfe how he féeleth himselfe affected in this point: whether we can féele this spirite comfort vs at all times and seasons or no'.
Editor’s Note
272. diffident: 'distrustful, mistrustful' (OED 1).
Editor’s Note
272. jealousie: 'anger, wrath, indignation' (OED, 'jealousy', n., 1).
Editor’s Note
272. desperate: 'despairing, hopeless' (OED adj., n., and adv., A.I.1.a).
Editor’s Note
279. Mortalitas … Augustine: cf. Augustine, De Trinitate, 2.9.15: 'mutabilitas non incon-venienter mortalitas dicitur' (PL 42. 855; 'dying is not inappropriately called changing').
Editor’s Note
280–6. kalaph … by death: the source for D's Hebr. excursus can be identified with some certainty as Jean de Lorin, Commentariorum in Librum Psalmorum Tomus Secundus (Lyon, 1614) E4V, col. 1D-E), in his commentary on the final clause of D's text ('non enim est illis com-mutatio', Ps. 54: 19, iuxta LXX; 'non enim mutantur', tuxta Hebr.). D gives the primary root 'kalaph' ('châlaph', 'to change' Strong H2498), where the Hebr. word in Ps. 55: 19 is its derivative 'chălîyphâh' ('change' Strong H2487). The Aramaic ('Chaldee', l. 285) paraphrase can be found in AP (iii. T3r). However, in addition to the Chaldee reading in Hebr., Lat. transliteration, and Lat. trans., Lorin also supplies (in Lat., as quoted by D) the reading of Symmachus—the Jewish proselyte (c.2nd century ce), whose free Gr. trans. of the OT was preserved in Origen's Hexapla—and several others (cf. 'some Translators', l. 283). Further, Lorin provides the locus commune of Job 14: 14 (ll. 280–1 and marg.): 'mutationes, siue vicis-situdines, aut excisiones, quo pacto in Iob [14.14 in marg.] expecto donec veniat immutatio mea … "chaliphathi'" ('"changes", that is, "vicissitudes", or "destructions", which is in Job, "I await the coming of my change" [as in] "chaliphathi"'). D also follows Lorin in linking Symmachus' reading of 'birth' ('sancta nativitas', l. 283) with Christian resurrection: 'de commutatione resurrectiones fauet immutatio Iob, vt rursus fieri significat, vel sanctam nativitatem' ('the change that is the resurrection supports the "change" in Job, which in another way can mean a blessed birth'). See also ll. 290–1 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
283. [marg.]. Symma.: Symmachus; see prev. cmt.
Editor’s Note
286. stay: 'to cease speaking, break off one's discourse' (OED v.1, 2.b).
Editor’s Note
287–8. Resurrection … creation: cf. Geneva note to Job 14: 14: 'Meaning, vnto the day of the resurrection when he shulde be changed, & renued.'
Editor’s Note
288. Divorce … Marriage: the 'Divorce' of the body and soul at death is the 'Marriage' of the soul to God; cf. PS vi.14.399–405.
Editor’s Note
290. bosom of Abraham: cf. Luke 16: 22.
Editor’s Note
290–1. Maxima … Immutabilitatem: cf. Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermones de Diversis, 8.1: 'Et quemadmodum sic mutetur, imo sic mutet immutabilis ipse' (PL 183. 561B); cf. also Aquinas, Quaestiones Disputatae Potentia Dei, 5.7, ans. 12: 'Elementa autem mutabuntur de mutabilitate in immutabilitatem, ut patet per Glossam quae super illud Matth. cap. V, 18: "donee transeat caelum et terra", etc., dicit: "donec transeat a mutabilitate ad immutabilitatem". Ergo ista natura elementorum non remanebit.' ('Now the elements will be changed from mutability to immutability because the (interlinear) gloss on Matthew v, 18, Till heaven and earth pass, says: "Till they pass from mutability to immutability." Therefore the elements will not retain their present nature.')
Editor’s Note
293–4. escape … surprise: the special case of those alive at the Second Coming; cf. Geneva note to 1 Cor. 15: 51 ('When the Lord cometh to iudgement, some of the Saintes shalbe aliue, whome he wil change euen as if they were dead, so that this change is in steade of death to them'); for a more detailed treatment of this question by D, see this vol., Sermon 10, Sources.
Editor’s Note
294–5. though … changed: cf. 1 Cor. 15: 51 ('we shall not all sleepe, but wee shall all be changed'); cited by Lorin to support the same argument (see ll. 280–6 cmt).
Editor’s Note
295. Statutum … mori: cf. Vulg. Heb. 9: 27: 'statutum est hominibus semel mori' (AV 'it is appointed vnto men once to die').
Critical Apparatus
296 bis] PS; hic F26
Editor’s Note
296. statutum … mori: Lat., 'it is appointed that no one shall die twice', D's reworking of Heb. 9: 27 (see prev. cmt).
Editor’s Note
299. second death: the spiritual death of eternal damnation at Judgment; cf. ll. 294–5, and this vol., Sermon 1, ll. 546–7 cmt.
Critical Apparatus
303 themselves] ed.; themselvs F26
Editor’s Note
307. Cntick: 'one skilful in judging of the qualities and merits of literary or artistic works' (OED, 'critic', n.1, 2, citing Francis Bacon (1605) as the first use).
Editor’s Note
310. Reading … Book: at a trial, having his book (of precedents, arguments) in his hand.
Editor’s Note
311. stupidity: 'condition of being deprived of the use of the faculties; a state of stupor' (OED 2).
Editor’s Note
313. their first letters: their ABC.
Editor’s Note
315. The … all: see ll. 322–31 and cmts.
Editor’s Note
320–1. Epistles … not superscribed: lit., letters not addressed to them; but here continuing the biblical metaphor of NT epistles, or letters.
Editor’s Note
322. Sentence: 'a quoted saying of some eminent person, an apophthegm' (OED n., 4.a).
Editor’s Note
324. Ecclesiasticus … wisdom: D quotes from Geneva (Ecclus. 1: 15), but marg. gives AV v. number (16).
Editor’s Note
325–6. Blessedness … David: cf. Ps. 112: 1.
Editor’s Note
326. Blessedness … Solomon: cf. Prov. 28: 14.
Editor’s Note
326–7. Plenitudo … Sapientia: Ecclus. 1: 20 (Vulg. 'Plenitudo sapientis timere Deum' lit., 'the fullness of wisdom is to fear the Lord'; AV 'The root of wisedome is to feare the Lord'); and Ecclus. 1.1 (Vulg. 'Omnis sapientia a domino Deo est'; AV 'All wisedome commeth from the Lord').
Editor’s Note
328. Job … sapientia: Job 28: 28 (Vulg.).
Editor’s Note
329–31. Esai … treasure: Isa. 33: 6 (Geneva).
Editor’s Note
333. Holy Ghost … placed: as the author of Scripture.
Critical Apparatus
336 Esai.ii. 2.] ed.; Esai.ii. 3. F26
Critical Apparatus
340 is] ed.; his F26
Editor’s Note
340. Tristis anima: cf. Matt. 26: 38, Mark 14: 34 (Vulg.).
Editor’s Note
340. present: 'having presence of mind, collected, self-possessed' (OED adj. and adv., 4).
Editor’s Note
341. Veruntamen: Lat., 'Yet' cf. Matt. 26: 39, Mark 14: 36 (Vulg.); see next cmt.
Editor’s Note
341–2. Yet … done: D casts Christ's Passion petition ('Neuerthelesse, not as I will, but as thou wilt', Matt. 26: 39; cf. Mark 14: 36) in the terms of the Lord's Prayer ('thy will be done', Matt. 6: 10).
Editor’s Note
342–3. Eli … me?: cf. Matt. 27: 46.
Editor’s Note
344. In … Domine: Lat., lit., 'into thy hands Lord'; cf. Vulg. Luke 23: 46, 'Pater, in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum' (AV 'Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit'). The form D quotes is the response sung at Compline in the RC rite; cf. this vol., Sermon 1, l. 356 cmt.
Editor’s Note
346. Holy Ghost … Love: cf. 1 John 4: 8.
Editor’s Note
348. Ye are gods: Ps. 82: 6; referring to anyone in authority, but conventionally applied to kings (cf. v. 7, 'but ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the Princes'). Cf. ll. 17–18.
Editor’s Note
351. servile fear: based on Rom. 8: 15 ('For ye haue not receiued the spirit of bondage againe to feare: but you haue receiued the spirit of adoption'), a Pauline distinction between pagan and Christian motives for religious love; cf. Edmund Bunny, A Booke of Christian Exercise (1584), STC 19355, Z7v–8r: 'our spirit is not a spirit of servile fear: that is, to live in fear, only for dread of punishment, without love: but a spirit of love joined with fear of children, wherby they fear to offend their father, not only in respect of his punishment, but principally for his goodnes towards them'.
Editor’s Note
351. apprehension: fear.
Editor’s Note
353–4. Fear … hell: cf. Matt. 10: 28.
Editor’s Note
354. even … wisdom: a moral commonplace; cf. Bunny, Christian Exercise, Z8v: 'albeit the spirit of servile fear be forbidden us … yet is it most profitable for sinners, and such as yet but begin to serve God'.
Editor’s Note
355. Quid … Deus?: Job 31: 14 (Vulg.; lit., 'What shall I do when God rises up in judgment?').
Editor’s Note
357–8. A … timui: cf. Vulg. Ps. 118: 120, 'a iudiciis enim tuis timui' (AV Ps. 119: 120, 'I am afraid of thy judgements').
Editor’s Note
360. Timorem … vos: Vulg. Ps. 33: 12; AV Ps. 34: 11; note Vulg. numbering in marg. .
Editor’s Note
360–1. Cogita … barathrum: cf. Basil, Sermones de moribus 14.1: 'cogita … animo tibi fingas barathrum profundum, tenebras impenetrabiles' (PG 32. 550; 'think … of your soul in the depths of hell, in impenetrable darkness').
Editor’s Note
363. Hierome … damnavi: cf. Jerome, Epistola XXII ad Eustochium, 7: 'Ille igitur ego, qui ob gehennae metum, tali me carcere ipse damnaveram' (PL 22. 93; 'Now, although in my fear of hell, I had confined myself to this prison', NPNF, 2nd ser., vi. 25).
Editor’s Note
369. disestimation: 'the action of disesteeming; the condition of being disesteemed; disrepute' (OED, citing 1619 as the first use).
Editor’s Note
377. Stewards and Vice-gerents: generally, deputies; but here kings are strongly implied; cf. 'applied to rulers and magistrates as representatives of the Deity' (OED, 'vice-gerent', n., 2.a).
Editor’s Note
382–418. Jehovah … Religion : D's peroration is built on the Christian interpretative consensus on the different expansions of the Hebrew 'Tetragrammaton', or name for God, 'YHWH'. In the most ancient OT texts, the sacred name had no vowels or vocalizations and was 'unutterable' (l. 382), out of respect for the sixth commandment not to take the Lord's name in vain (Exod. 20: 7). Two of the names for God and their meanings discussed by D result from later Hebr. versions which supplied vowels to 'YHWH' to allow its pronunciation in Hebr. worship as 'Adonai' ('Lord' Lat., Dominus) and 'Elohim' ('God' Lat., Deus); 'Jehovah' was an early Christian transcription of 'Adonai'. Cf. ED, 23–7.
Editor’s Note
385. School … Pulpit: a typical appeal to practical, vs. speculative religion; D contrasts university examination chambers ('schools'), where disputative theological and philosophical examinations and 'disputes' were held, with places of worship, where uncontentious moral doctrine should be taught.
Editor’s Note
386–8. timor Adonai … all: Lat., 'fear of Adonai' see ll. 382–418 cmt; cf. Heinrich Bullinger, Fiftie … sermons diuided into fiue decades (1577), STC 4056, 3C4v: 'Adonai … al interpreters in their translations where they turne it into Latine doe call it Dominus, that is, Lord. For GOD is the Lord of all things .… For he hath a most méere dominion, and absolute Monarchie ouer all his creatures.'
Editor’s Note
388. potestas . . abutendi: from Roman property law; cf. Codex, 4.35.21: 'ius utendi et abutendi re sua, quatenus iuris ratio patitur' ('the right [D, 'potestas', 'power'] of the use and the abuse of a thing, within the limits of the law').
Editor’s Note
393. two Tables: that is, the two scriptural precepts that follow (see next cmts), identified metaphorically with the Twelve Tables of Roman Law (cf. prev. cmt) and the two tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Editor’s Note
393–4. Tantummodo … thee: composite of Mark 5: 36 and Luke 18: 42 (Vulg. and AV).
Editor’s Note
394–5. Fac … salvation: another composite (see prev. cmt), where the Lat. first clause is scriptural (Vulg. Luke 10: 28; AV 'this do, and thou shalt liue'); the second clause freely summarizes Pauline assertions that good works confirm faith (cf. 1 Tim. 6: 18, 2 Tim. 3: 17, and Tit. 3: 14).
Editor’s Note
395–6. Dominum … hosts: 'The Lord of Hosts' is a common OT epithet for God, sometimes preserving the Hebraism 'God of Sabaoth' (D's 'Tzebaoth', l. 407); cf. Bullinger, Fiftie … sermons, 3C4v: 'And therefore for plainnesse sake sometime the word Sabbaoth is annexed to the name of God: whiche some translate … the Lord of hostes. For God being Almightie, doth by his power or strength shewe forth, and in his hoste declare what mightie thinges he is able to doe.'
Editor’s Note
399–405. Elohim … Genesis: cf. Bullinger, Fiftie … sermons, 3C5r–v: 'Againe, God is called El, because of his strength. … Elohim … betokeneth the presence of God, which neuer fayleth his woorkmanship .… as in the first of Genesis we find: In the beginning, Bara Elohim … God created … Heauen and Earth.'
Editor’s Note
407. Tzebaoth: see ll. 395–6 cmt.
Editor’s Note
416–17. Type … heaven: D concludes with an assertion of the exemplarity of courts; cf. l. 18 and cmt.
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