David Colclough (ed.), The Oxford Edition of the Sermons of John Donne, Vol. 3: Sermons Preached at the Court of Charles I

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pg 57SERMON 4Editor’s NoteA Sermon Preached to the Houshold at [O3r]White-hall, April 30. 1626.

Matth. 9.13I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

5Some things the several Evangelists record severally, one, and no more. Critical Apparatus6S. Matthew, and none but S. Matthew, records Josephs jealousie and 1.19 7suspicion, that his wife Mary had been in a fault, before her marriage; And Editor’s Note8then his temper withall, not frequent in that distemper of jealousie, not to 9exhibit her to open infamy for that fault; And yet his holy discretion too, Not 10to live with a woman faulty that way, but to take some other occasion, and to Editor’s Note11put her away privily: In which, we have three elements of a wise husband; 12first, not to be utterly without all jealousie and providence, and so expose his Editor’s Note13wife to all tryals, and tentations, And yet not to be too apprehensive and 14credulous, and so expose her to dishonour and infamy; but yet not to be so 15indulgent to her faults, when they were true faults, as by his connivence, and 16living with her, to make her faults, his: And all this we have out of that which 17S. Matthew records, and none but he. S. Mark, and none but S. Mark Critical Apparatus18records, that story, of Christs recovering a dumb man, and almost deaf, of both 7.31 19infirmities: In which, when we see, that our Saviour Christ, though he could 20have recover'd that man with a word, with a touch, with a thought, yet was Editor’s Note21pleas'd to enlarge himself in all those ceremonial circumstances, of imposition 22of hands, of piercing his ears   |   with his fingers, of wetting his tongue with [O3v] 23spittle, and some others, we might thereby be instructed, not to under-value 24such ceremonies as have been instituted in the Church, for the awakening of 25mens consideration, and the exalting of their devotion; though those cere-26monies, primarily, naturally, originally, fundamentally, and meerly in them-27selves, be not absolutely and essentially necessary: And this we have from 28that which is recorded by S. Mark, and none but him. S. Luke, and none but Editor’s Note29S. Luke, records the history of Mary and Joseph's losing of Christ: in which we 2.42 30see, how good and holy persons may lose Christ; and how long? They had lost 31him, and were a whole day without missing him: a man may be without 32Christ, and his Spirit, and lie long in an ignorance and senselesness of that 33loss: And then, where did they lose him? Even in Jerusalem, in the holy City: 34even in this holy place, and now in this holy exercise, you lose Christ, if either Editor’s Note35any other respect then his glory, brought you hither; or your mindes stray out Editor’s Note36of these walls, now you are here. But when they sought him, and sought him Editor’s Note37sorrowing, and sought him in the Temple, then they found him: If in a holy pg 58Editor’s Note38sadness and penitence, you seek him here, in his House, in his Ordinance, here 39he is always at home, here you may always finde him. And this we have out of 402.11 that which S. Luke reports, and none but he. S. John, and none but S. John, 41records the story of Christs miraculous changing of water into wine, at the 42marriage in Cana: In which, we see, both that Christ honour'd the state of 43Marriage, with his personal presence, and also that he afforded his servants so 44plentiful a use of his creatures, as that he was pleased to come to a miraculous Editor’s Note45supply of wine, rather then they should want it. Some things are severally 46recorded by the several Evangelists, as all these; and then some things are 47recorded by all four; as John Baptist's humility, and lowe valuation of him-Editor’s Note48self, in respect of Christ; which he expresses in that phrase, That he was not 49worthy to carry his shooes. The Holy Ghost had a care, that this should be Editor’s Note50repeated to us by all four, That the best endeavours of Gods best servants, are 51unprofitable, unavailable in themselves, otherwise then as Gods gracious 52acceptation inanimates them, and as he puts his hand to that plough which 53they drive or draw. Now our Text hath neither this singularity, nor this 54universality; it is neither in one onely, nor in all the Evangelists: but it hath Editor’s Note55(as they speak in the Law) an interpretative universality, a presumptive uni-56versality: for that which hath a plurality of voices, is said to have all; and this Editor’s Note57Text hath so; for three of the four Evangelists have recorded this Text: onely 58S. John, who doth especially extend himself about the divine nature of Christ, 59pretermits it; but all the rest, who insist more upon his assuming our nature, 60[O4r] and working our salvation in that, the Holy Ghost  |   hath recorded, and 61repeated this protestation of our Saviour's, I came to call not the righteous, but 62sinners to repentance.

63Divisio. Which words, being spoken by Christ, upon occasion of the Pharisees 64murmuring at his admitting of Publicans and sinners to the Table with him, at 65that feast which S. Matthew made him, at his house, soon after his calling 66to the Apostleship, direct our consideration upon the whole story, and do, 67not afford but require, not admit but invite this Distribution; That, first, we 68consider the occasion of the words, and then the words themselves: for of 69these twins is this Text pregnant, and quick, and easily deliver'd. In the first, Editor’s Note70we shall see the pertinencie of Christs answer; and in the second, the doctrine 71thereof: In the first, how fit it was for them; in the other, how necessary for us: 72First, the Historical part, which was occasional; and then the Catechistical 73part, which is doctrinal. And in the first of these, the Historical and 74Occasional part, we shall see, first, That Christ by his personal presence 75justified Feasting, somewhat more then was meerly necessary, for society, 76and chearful conversation: He justified feasting, and feasting in an Apostles Editor’s Note77house: though a Church-man, and an Exemplar-man, he was not depriv'd of a 78plentiful use of Gods creatures, nor of the chearfulness of conversation. And 79then he justified feasting in the company of Publicans and sinners; intimating 80therein, that we must not be in things of ordinary conversation, over-curious, 81over-inquisitive of other mens manners: for whatsoever their manners be, a 82good man need not take harm by them, and he may do good amongst them. pg 5984And then lastly, we shall see the calumny that the Pharisees cast upon Christ 85for this, and the iniquity of that calumny, both in the manner, and in the 86matter thereof. And in these Branches we shall determine that first, The 87Historical, the Occasional part: And in the second, The Catechistical and 88Doctrinal, (I came to call not the righteous, but sinners to repentance) we shall 89pass by these steps: first, we shall see the Actions; venit, he came; that is, first, 90venit actu: whereas he came by promise, even in Paradise; and by frequent 91ratification, in all the Prophets; now he is really, actually come; venit, he is 92come, we look for no other after him; we joyn no other, Angels nor Saints, with 93him: venit, he is actually come; and then venit sponte, he is come freely, and of 94his good-will; we assigne, we imagine no cause in us, that should invite him to 95come, but humbly acknowledge all to have proceeded from his own goodness: Editor’s Note96and that's the Action, He came. And then the Errand, and purpose for which 97he came, is vocare, he came to call: It is not, Occurrere, That he came to meet 98them, who were upon the way before; for no man had either disposition in 99himself, or faculty in himself, neither will nor   |   power to rise and meet him, [O4v] 100no nor so much as to wish that Christ would call him, till he did call him: He 101came not occurrere, to meet us; but yet he came not cogere, to compel us, to 102force us, but onely vocare, to call us, by his Word, and Sacraments, and 103Ordinances, and lead us so; and that's his errand, and purpose in coming. 104And from that, we shall come to the persons upon whom his coming works: 105where we have first a Negative, a fearful thing in Christs lips; and then an Editor’s Note106Affirmitive, a blessed seal in his mouth: first, an Exclusive, a fearful banish-Editor’s Note107ment out of his Ark; and then an Inclusive, a blessed naturalization in his 108Kingdom: Non justos, I came to call, not the righteous, but sinners. And then 109lastly, we have, not as before, his general intention and purpose, To call; but 110the particular effect & operation of this calling upon the godly, it brings them 111to repentance. Christ does not call us to a satisfaction of Gods justice, by our Editor’s Note112selves; that's impossible to us: it is not ad satisfactionem; but then it is not ad 113gloriam, he does not call us to an immediate possession of glory, without doing 114any thing before; but it is ad Resipiscentiam; I came to call, not the righteous, but Editor’s Note115sinners, to Repentance. And so have you the whole frame mark'd out, which we Editor’s Note116shall set up; and the whole compass design'd, which we shall walk in: In 117which, though the pieces may seem many, yet they do so naturally flow out 118of one another, that they may easily enter into your understanding; and so Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus119naturally depend upon one another, that they may easily lay hold upon your 120memory.

Critical Apparatus121First then, our first Branch in the first Part, is, That Christ justified Part I. Ambrose. Editor’s Note122Feasting, festival and chearful conversation. For, as S. Ambrose says, Frustra 123fecisset; God, who made the world primarily for his own glory, had made Light 124in vain, if he had made no creatures to see, and to be seen by that light, wherein 125he might receive glory: so, frustra fecisset, God, who intended secondarily 126mans good in the Creation, had made creatures to no purpose, if he had not Editor’s Note127allow'd Man a use, and an enjoying of those creatures. Our Mythologists, who pg 60128think they have conveyed a great deal of Moral doctrine in their Poetical 129Fables, (and so, indeed they have) had mistaken the matter much, when they Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus130make it one of the torments of hell, to stand in a fresh River, and not be 131permitted to drink; and amongst pleasant fruits, and not to be suffered to eat; 132if God requir'd such a forebearing, such an abstemiousness in Man, as that 133being set to rule and govern the creatures, he might not use and enjoy them: Editor’s Note134Priviledges are lost, by abusing; but so they are, by not using too. Of those 135three Opinions, which have all pass'd through good Authors, Whether, before 136the Floud had impaired and corrupted the herbs and fruits of the earth, men 137did eat flesh or no; of which, the first is absolutely Negative, both in matter or 138[P1r] law, and matter of fact, No man might, no  |   man did; and the second is 139directly contrary to this, Affirmative in both, All men might, all men did; and 140the third goes a Middle way, It was always lawful, and all men might, but sober 141and temperate men did forbear, and not do it: of these three, though the later 142have prevail'd with those Authors, and be the common opinion; yet the later 143part of that later opinion, would very hardly fall into proof, That all their 144sober and temperate men did forbear this eating of flesh, or any lawful use of Editor’s Note145Gods creatures. God himself took his portion in this world so, in meat and 146drink, in his manifold sacrifices; and God himself gave himself in this world 147so, in bread and wine, in the blessed Sacrament of his body and his bloud: And 148the very joys of heaven after the Resurrection, are convey'd to us also, in the Editor’s Note14969.22 Marriage-supper of the Lamb. That mensa laqueus, which is in the Psalm, is a 150curse: Let their table be made a snare, let their plenty and prosperity be an Editor’s Note151occasion of sin to them, that's a malediction: but for that mensa propositionum, 152Num. 4.7. The table of Shew-bread, where those blessings which God had given to man, 153were brought again, and presented in his sight, upon that table; the loaves 154were great in quantity, and many in number, and often renew'd: God gives 155plentifully, richly, and will be serv'd so himself. In all those festivals, amongst Editor’s Note156the Jews, which were of Gods immediate institution, as the Passover, and Editor’s Note157Pentecost, and the Trumpets, and Tabernacles, and the rest, you shall often Editor’s Note158meet in the Scriptures, these two phrases, Humiliabitis animas; and then, Editor’s Note159Lætaberis coram Domino: first, upon that day, you shall humble your soules, (that 160you have, Levit. 16. 29 and very often) and then, upon that day, You shall 161rejoyce before the Lord; (and that you have, Deut. 16. 11 and very often besides.) Editor’s Note162Now some Interpreters have applied these two phrases to the two days; that 163upon the Eve we should humble our souls in Fasting, and upon the Day 164rejoyce before the Lord in a festival chearfulness: but both belong to the Editor’s Note165Day it self; that first we should humble our souls, as we do now, in these holy Editor’s Note166Convocations; and then return, and rejoyce before the Lord, in a chearful use Editor’s Note167of his creatures, our selves, and then send out a portion to them that want, as Editor’s Note168it is expresly enjoyn'd in that feast, Nehem. 8. 10. and in that, Esth. 9. 22. 169where their feasting is as literally commanded, as their giving to the poor. And Editor’s Note170besides those Stationary and Anniversary Feastings, which were of Gods pg 61171immediate institution, And that Feast which was of the Churches institution Editor’s Note172after, in the time of the Macchabees, which was the Encænia, The Dedication Editor’s Note173of the Temple; the Jews at this day, in their Dispersion, observe a yearly Feast, Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus174which they call Festum Letitiæ, The feast of Rejoycing, in a festival thankful-175ness to God, that he hath brought the year about, and afforded them the use of Editor’s Note176the Law, another year. When Christ came to  |   Jairus house, and commanded [P1v] 177away the Musick, and all the Funeral-solemnities, it was not because he 178disallowed those solemnities, but because he knew there was no Funeral to be 179solemniz'd in that place, to which he came with an infallible purpose to raise 180that maid which was dead. Civil recreations, offices of society and mutual 181entertainment, and chearful conversation; and such a use of Gods creatures, as Editor’s Note182may testifie him to be a God, not of the valleys onely, but of the mountains too, 183not a God of necessity onely, but of plenty too; Christ justified by his personal 184presence at a Feast; which was our first: and then at a Feast in an Apostles 185house; which is our second circumstance.

186The Apostle then had a house, and means to keep a house, and to make 186In Domo Apost. 187occasional Feasts in his house, though he had bound himself to serve Christ Editor’s Note188in so near a place as an Apostle. The profession of Christs service, in the Editor’s Note189Ministery, does not take from any man, the use of Gods creatures, nor 190chearfulness of conversation. As some of the other Apostles are said to have Editor’s Note191followed Christ, relictis retibus, They left their nets, and followed him; and yet 192upon occasion, they did at times return to their nets and fishing after that; for Editor’s Note193Christ found them at their nets, after his resurrection: so S. Matthew followed Editor’s Note194Christ, as S. Luke expresses it; Relictis omnibus, He left all, and followed Christ; 5.28 Editor’s Note195but not so absolutely all, as S. Basil seems to take it, Adeo ut non solum Basil. 196lucra, sed & ipsa pericula contempserit, that he did not onely neglect the gain 197of his place, but the danger of displeasure by such a leaving of his Place: for Editor’s Note198S. Matthew was a Publicane, and so a publike Officer, and an Accountant to 199the State: But though he did so far leave all, as that nothing retarded him from 200an immediate following of Christ; yet, no doubt but he returned after, to the 201setling of his Office, and the rectifying of his Accounts. When God sees it 202necessary or behoveful for a man to leave all his worldly state, that he may 203follow him, God tells him so; he gives him such a measure of light by his 204Spirit, as lets him see, it is Gods will; and then, to that man, that is a full Editor’s Note205commandment, and bindes him to do it, and not onely an Evangelical counsel, 206as they call it, which leaves him at liberty, to do it, or leave it undone: Christ 207saw how much was necessary to that young man in the Gospel, and therefore Editor’s Note208to him he said, Vade & vende, Go and sell all that thou hast, and then follow 209me: And this was a commandment to that man, though it be not a general 210commandment to all; upon Matthew Christ laid no such commandment, but Editor’s Note211onely said to him, Sequere me, Follow me; and he did so; but yet not to devest 212himself of his worldly estate, as that he had not a house, and means to 213keep a house, and that plentifully, after this. When Eliah us'd that holy 1 Reg. 19. 19 pg 62Editor’s Note214fascination upon Elisha, (we may not, I think, call it a fascination; fascination, 215[P2r] I think, hath never a  |   good sense) but when Eliah used that holy Charm and 216Incantation upon him, to spread his Mantle over him, and to draw him with Editor’s Note217that, as with a net, after him; yet Elisha had thus receiv'd a character of 218Orders, after this imposition of hands in the spreading of the Mantle, after he Editor’s Note219had this new filiation, by which he was the son of the Prophet, yet Elisha went Editor’s Note220home, and feasted his friend after this. So Matthew begun his Apostleship 2215.29 with a feast; and though he, in modestie forbear saying so, S. Luke, who 222reports the story, says that it was a great feast. He begun with a great, but Editor’s Note223ended with a greater: for, (if we have S. Matthews history rightly deliver'd to 224us) when he was at the greatest feast which this world can present, when 225he was receiving and administring the blessed Sacrament, in that action, was 226he himself serv'd up as a dish to the table of the Lamb, and added to the 227number of the Martyrs then; and died for that Saviour of his, whose death for Editor’s Note228Gen. 21.8 him, he did then celebrate. This then was festum Ablactationis; Abraham made 229a great feast, the day that Isaac was weaned: Here was Matthew wean'd ab Critical Apparatus230uberibus mundi, from the brests of this world; and he made a feast, a feast that Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus231Act. 10. was a Type of a Type, a prevision of a vision, of that vision which S. Peter had 232after, of a sheet, with all kinde of meats clean and unclean in it: for at this 233Table was the clean and unspotted Lamb, Christ Jesus himself; and at the 234same Table, those spotted and unclean Goats, the Publicans and sinners; 235which is our third, and next circumstance, He justified feasting, feasting in an 236Apostles house, feasting with Publicans and sinners.

Editor’s Note237Cum publicanis Is there then any conversation with notorious sinners justifiable, excusable? Editor’s Note238We see when S. Paul came to be of that High Commission, to judge of 2391 Tim. 1.20 notorious sinners, how he proceeded: he deliver'd Alexander and Hymenæus to 240Satan; and there, surely, he did not mean that any man should keep them 241company. What was their fault? It was but one Heretical point; a great one 242indeed; for they denied the Resurrection; and for this, the Apostle (as it is 243also said there) sends them to Satan, that they might learn not to blaspheme: 244And may there not be thus much intimated in that, That a man may learn 245more blasphemy with some men, then with Satan himself? That may be 246true: but the sending and delivering to Satan, is the excluding of that man 247from the Kingdom, that is, from the visible Church of Christ, by a just 248Excommunication: for, all without the Church, is Satans jurisdiction. Of Editor’s Note249Nyssen. which fearful state, Gregory Nyssene speaks pathetically; Si haberet oculos 250anima, If thy soul had eyes, to see souls, Ostenderem tibi, tibi segregato, I would 251shew thee, thee who hast wilfully incurr'd, and dost rebelliously continue 252under an Excommunication rightly grounded, duely proceeded in, and justly 253[P2v] denounc'd; I would shew thee the picture  |   of a man burning in Hell, for 254that's thy picture, says that Father, to that man; Non Episcopalis arrogantiæ 255existimes, says he, Think it not a passionate act of an insolent Bishop; Cæpit in 256Lege, confirmatur in Gratia, God began it in the Law, and confirm'd it in the pg 63257Gospel; and where it is justly grounded, and duely proceeded in, it is a fearful 258thing to be deliver'd over to Satan by excommunication; and S. Paul is so far 259from conversing with an Heretick in one point, as that he proceeds so far with 260him, as to deliver him to Satan.

261Nay, for a fault much less then this, not opposed against God, as Heresie, Editor’s Note262but against Natural Honesty, the Apostle proceeds as far, in Incest; Gather 1 Cor. 5.5. 263you, says he, with my spirit, and the power of the Lord Jesus, to deliver that 264incestuous man to Satan. Nay, in less faults then that, he forbids Conversation; Editor’s Note265If a fornicator, if a drunkard, if a covetous person, with him eat not. Nay; for that v. 11. Editor’s Note266which is less then these, he is as severe; We command thee, Brethren, in the 2 Thes. 3.6, 14 267Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, that you withdraw your selves from every brother Editor’s Note268that walketh disorderly. Where, Calvin thinks, (and, I think, aright, and many Editor’s Note269others must think so too; for a Jesuite thinks so, as well as Calvin) that the Cornel. Lapid. 270Apostle by the word disorderly, does not mean persons that live in any course Editor’s Note271of notorious sin; but by disorderly, he means Ignavos, Inutiles, idle and 272unprofitable persons; persons of no use to the Church, or to the State: that 273whereas this is Ordo Divinus, the order that God hath established in this Editor’s Note274world, that every man should embrace a Calling, and walk therein; they who 275do not so, pervert Gods order: and they are S. Pauls disorderly persons.

276This then being so, that the Holy Ghost by S. Paul, separates not onely 277from all spiritual Communion, but from all civil Conversation, all notorious 278sinners, and disorderly persons, how descends Christ to this facility, and 279easiness of conversation with Publicans and Sinners? For, (to speak a word by 280the way, of the Office of a Publican) though Customes, and Tributes, and Editor’s Note281Impositions were due to the Kings of Jewry, due in natural right, and due in Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus282legal right, fixed and established by that Law in Samuel; and so the Farmers 1 Sam. 8.15 283of those Customes, and Collectors of those Tributes, in that respect not to be 284blamed, or ill thought of; and though in the Roman State, (under whose 285Government, at this time the Jews were) the Office of a Publican were an Editor’s Note286honourable Office, (for so that great Statesman and Orator tells us, Flos Cicero. Critical Apparatus287Equitum Romanorum, Ornamentum Civitatis, Firmamentum Reipub.) Men of 288the best Families and Extraction in the State, Men of the best Credit and 289Reputation in the State, Men of the best Revenues and Possession in the State, 290were Publicans; yet when the Romans govern'd Jewry as a Province, and that 291these honourable Roman Publicans forbore to execute that Office in those 292remote parts, and  |   making under-Farmers there, for the better advancing [P3r] 293of that service, employed the Jews themselves, who best understood the ways 294and the persons: these Jews became more cruel and heavy to their Brethren, 295in these Exactions, then any strangers; and so, and justly, the most odious 296persons amongst them: and then why would Christ afford this conversation 297to these, and such as these, to Publicans and sinners? Christ was in himself Editor’s Note298a Dispensation upon any Law, because he was the Law-maker. But here he 299proceeded not in that capacity; he took no benefit of any Dispensation; he 300fulfilled the intention and purpose of the Law; for the Laws therefore forbad pg 64301conversation with sinners, lest a man should take infection by such con-Editor’s Note302Exod. 34. versation: so the Jews were forbidden to eat with the Gentiles; but it was, lest in 303eating with the Gentiles, they might eat of things sacrificed to Idols: so they Editor’s Note304Num. 5. were forbidden conversation with leprous persons, lest by such conversation 305the disease should be propagated; but where the danger of infection ceas'd, all 306conversation might be open; and Christ was always far enough from taking 307any infection, by any conversation with any sinner. He might apply himself to 308them, because he could take no harm by them; but he did it especially, that he 309might do good upon them. Some forbear the company of sinners, out of a 31065.5. singularity, and pride in their own purity, and say, with those in Esay, Stand by Editor’s Note311thyself, come not near me, for I am holyer then thou. But, Bonus non est, qui Malos 312Cant. 2.2. tolerare non potest, says S. August. upon those words, Lilium inter spinas, That 313Christ was a Lilie, though he grew amongst Thorns. A Lilie is not the less a 314Lilie, nor the worse, nor the darker a Lilie, because it grows amongst Thorns. 315That man is not so good as he should be, that cannot maintain his own 316integrity, and continue good; or that cannot maintain his charity, though 3171 Cor. 9.22. others continue bad. It was S. Paul's way, I am made all things to all men, that 3181 Cor. 5.11. I might save some. And in that place, which we mentioned before, where the 319Apostle names the persons, whom we are to forbear, amongst them, he names 320Idolators; and as he does the rest, he calls even those Idolators, Brethren; 321If any that is called a Brother, be an Idolator, &c. In cases where we are safe 322from dangers of infection, (and it lies much in our selves, to save our selves 323from infection) even some kind of Idolators, are left by S. Paul under the name 324of Brethren; and some brotherly, and neighbourly, and pious Offices, belong to 325them, for all that. These faults must arm me to avoid all danger from them, 326but not extinguish all charity towards them. And therefore it was an unjust 327calumny in the Pharisees, to impute this for a fault to Christ, that he applyed 328himself to these men; which is the next and last Circumstance in this first part, 329The Calumny of these Pharisees.

Editor’s Note330[P3v] Now in the manner of this Calumny, there was a great deal  |   of iniquity, and 331Calumnia. a great deal in the matter: For, for the manner; That which they say of Christ, 332they say not to Christ himself, but they whisper it to his servants, to his 333Disciples. A Legal and Juridical Accusation, is justifiable, maintainable, 334because it is the proper way for remedy: a private reprehension done with Editor’s Note335discretion, and moderation, should be acceptable too; but a privy whispering Editor’s Note336is always Pharisaical. The Devil himself, though he be a Lyon, yet he is a 337roaring Lyon; a man may hear him: but for a privy Whisperer, we shall onely 338hear of him. And in their plot there was more mischief; for, when Christs Editor’s Note339Matth. 12. Disciples plucked ears of Corn, upon the sabbath, the Pharisees said nothing 340to those Disciples, but they come to their Master, to Christ, and they tell him 341of it: Here, when Christ eats and drinks with these sinners, they never say any Critical Apparatus342thing to Christ himself, but they go to his servants, and they tell them of it. By Editor’s Note343privy whisperings and calumnies, they would aliene Christ from his Disciples, pg 65Editor’s Note344and his Disciples from him; the King from his Subjects by some tales, and the 345Subject from the King by other: and they took this for the shortest way to 346disgrace both their preaching, to discredit both their lives; to defame Christ 347for a Wine-bibber, and a loose Companion, and to defame his Disciples for Editor’s Note348prophane men, and Sabbath-breakers: for, Cujus vita despicitur, restat ut Gregor. Critical Apparatus349ejus predicatio contemnatur, is an infallible inference and consequence made 350by S. Gregory; Discredit a mans life, and you disgrace his Preaching: Lay 351imputations upon the person, and that will evacuate and frustrate all his 352preaching; for whether it be in the corruption of our nature, or whether it be 353in the nature of the thing it self, so it is, if I believe the Preacher to be an ill 354man, I shall not be much the better for his good Sermons.

355Thus they were injurious in the manner of their calumny; they were so 356too in the matter, to calumiate him therefore, because he applyed himself to Editor’s Note357sinners. The Wise-man in Ecclesiasticus institutes his meditation thus: There is 11.12. 358one that hath great need of help, full of poverty, yet the eye of the Lord looked 359upon him for good, and set him up from his low estate, so that many that saw it, 360marvelled at it. Many marvelled, but none reproached the Lord, chid the 361Lord, calumniated the Lord, for doing so. And if the Lord will look upon a 362sinner, and raise that bedrid man; if he will look with that eye, that pierces 363deeper then the eye of heaven, the Sun, (and yet with a look of that eye, the Editor’s Note364womb of the earth conceives) if he will look with that eye, that conveys more 365warmth then the eye of the Ostrich, (and yet with a look of that eye, that Bird Editor’s Note366is said to hatch her young ones, without sitting) that eye that melted Peter into Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus367water, and made him flow towards Christ; and rarified Matthew into air, and 368made him flee towards Christ; if that eye vouchsafe to look upon a Publican, Editor’s Note369and redeem a Go-  |   shen out of an Egypt, hatch a soul out of a carnal man, [P4r] 370produce a saint out of a sinner, shall we marvel at the matter? marvel so, as to 371doubt Gods power? shall any thing be impossible to God? or shall we marvel at 372the manner, at any way by which Christ shall be pleased to convey his mercy? Editor’s Note373Miraris eum peccatorum vinum bibere, qui pro peccatoribus sanguinem fudit? shall Chrysolog. 374we wonder that Christ would live with sinners, who was content to die for 375sinners? Wonder that he would eat the bread and Wine of sinners, that gave 376sinners his own flesh to eat, and his own blood to drink? Or if we do wonder 377at this, (as, indeed, nothing is more wonderful) yet let us not calumniate, let us 378not mis-interpret any way, that he shall be pleased to take, to derive his mercy Editor’s Note379to any man: but, (to use Clement of Alexandria's comparison) as we tread upon Clem. Alex. 380many herbs negligently in the field, but when we see them in an Apothecaries 381shop, we begin to think that there is some vertue in them; so howsoever we 382have a perfect hatred, and a religious despite against a sinner, as a sinner; yet if Editor’s Note383Christ Jesus shall have been pleased to have come to his door, and to have Editor’s Note384stood, and knock'd, and enter'd, and sup'd, and brought his dish, and made 385himself that dish, and seal'd a reconciliation to that sinner, in admitting him to 386that Table, to that Communion, let us forget the name of Publican, the Vices pg 66387of any particular profession; and forget the name of sinner, the history of any 388mans former life; and be glad to meet that man now in the arms, and to grow Critical Apparatus389up with that man now in the bowels of Christ Jesus; since Christ doth not now 390begin to make that man his, but now declares to us, that he hath been his, from Editor’s Note391all eternity: For in the Book of Life, the name of Mary Magdalen was as soon 392recorded, for all her incontinency, as the name of the blessed Virgin, for all her Editor’s Note393integrity; and the name of St. Paul who drew his sword against Christ, as soon Editor’s Note394as St. Peter, who drew his in defence of him: for the Book of life was not Editor’s Note395written successively, word after word, line after line, but delivered as a Print, 396all together. There the greatest sinners were as soon recorded, as the most 397righteous; and here Christ comes to call, not the righteous at all, but onely 398sinners to repentance. And so we have done with those pieces which constitute 399our first part; Christ by his personal presence justified feasting, and feasting 400in an Apostles house, and feasting with Publicans and sinners, though 401the Pharisees calumniated him, malitiously in the manner, injuriously in the 402matter; and we pass to our other part; from the Historical and Occasional, to 403the Catechistical, the Doctrinal Part.

Editor’s Note404Part II. The other Part, the Occasion, the Connexion was of the Text; and we 405cannot say properly that this Part, the answer is in the Text; for indeed, the 406Text is in it: the Text it self is but a piece of that Answer, which Christ gives 407[P4v] to these Calmuniators. First,  |   Christ does afford an Answer even to Editor’s Note408Respondet Calumniæ. Calumniators; for that is very often necessary: not onely because otherwise a 409Calumniator would triumph, but because otherwise a calumny would not Critical Apparatus410appear to be a calumny. A calumny is fix'd upon the fame of a good man; he in Editor’s Note411a holy scorn, and religious negligence, pretermits it; and after, long after, the 412generation of those vipers come to say, In all this time, who ever denyed it? 413A seasonable and a sober answer interrupts the prescription of a calumny, 414discontinues the continual claim of a calumny, disappoints and avoids that 415Fine which the calumny levied, to bar all posterity, if no man arise to make an Editor’s Note416answer. Truely, there are some passages in the Legend of Pope Joan, which I 417am not very apt to believe; yet, it is shrewd evidence, that in so many hundreds 418of years, six or seven, no man in that Church should say any thing against it: I 419would they had been pleas'd to have said something, somewhat sooner: for if 420there were slander mingled in the story, (and if there be, it must be their own 421Authors that have mingled it) yet slander it self should not be neglected. 422Christ does not neglect it; he justifies his conversation with these sinners: and 423he gives answers proportionable to the men, with whom he dealt. First, Editor’s Note424because the Pharisees pretended a knowledge and zeal to the Scriptures, he Editor’s Note425Ose 6.6. answers out of the Scriptures, out of the Prophet, Misericordiam volo, Mercy is Editor’s Note426better then sacrifice; and an Evangelical desire to do good upon sinners, better 427then a Legal inhibition to come near them. And Christ seems to have been 428so full of this saying of Ose, as that he says it here, where the Pharisees Editor’s Note429calumniate him to his disciples; and when they calumniate the disciples about pg 67430the sabbath, he says it there too. He answers out of Scriptures, because they 431pretend a zeal to them; and then because the Pharisees were learned, and Editor’s Note432rational men, he answers out of Reason too, The whole have no need of the 433Physician: I come in the quality of a Physician; and therefore apply my self to Editor’s Note434the sick. For, we read of many blinde and lame, and deaf and dumb, and dead 435persons, that came or were brought to Christ to be recovered; but we never 436read of any man, who being then in a good state of health, came to Christ to 437desire that he might be preserv'd in that state: The whole never think of a 438Physician; and therefore Christ, who came in that quality, applied himself 439to them that needed. And that he might give full satisfaction, even to 440Calumniators, every way, as he answer'd them out of Scriptures, and out of 441Reason; so because the Pharisees were States-men too, and led by Precedents Editor’s Note442and Records, he answers out of the tenour and letter of his Commission and 443Instructions, (which is that part of his answer that falls most directly into our 444Text) Veni vocare, I came to call not the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

Editor’s Note445  |   First then, venit, he came, he is come: venit actu; he came in promise, [Q1r] 446often ratified before: now there is no more room for John Baptist's question, Venit Actu. Editor’s Note447Tune ille, Art thou he that should come, or must we look for another? For another Editor’s Note448coming of the same Messias, we do look, but not for another Messias; we look 449for none after him, no post-Messias; we joyn none, Saints nor Angels, with 450him, no sub-Messias, no vice-Messias. The Jews may as well call the history of 451the Floud Prophetical, and ask when the world shall be drown'd according to 452that Prophecie; or the history of their deliverance from Babylon Prophetical, 453and ask when they shall return from thence to Jerusalem, according to that 454Prophecie, as seek for a Messias now amongst their Prophets, so long after all 455things being perform'd in Christ, which were prophesied of the Messias; 456Christ hath so fully made Prophecie History.

Editor’s Note457Venit actu, He is really, personally, actually come; and then venit sponte, he Venit sponte. Editor’s Note458is come freely, and of his own meer goodness: How freely? Come, and not Editor’s Note459sent? Yes, he was sent: God so loved the world, as that he gave his onely begotten 460Son for it; There was enough done to magnifie the mercy of the Father, in 461sending him. How freely then? Come and not brought? Yes, he was brought: Editor’s Note462The holy Ghost overshadowed the blessed virgin, and so he was conceiv'd: there 463was enough done to magnifie the goodness of the holy Ghost in bringing him.

Editor’s Note464He came to his prison, he abhorr'd not the Virgins womb; and not without a Editor’s Note465Mittimus; he was sent: He came to the Execution; and not without a desire of Editor’s Note466Reprieve, in his Transeat Calix, If it be possible, let this cup pass from me; and yet 467venit sponte, he came freely, voluntarily, of his own goodness. No more then he Editor’s Note468could have been left out at the Creation, and the world made without him, 469could he have been sent into this world, without his own hand to the Warrant, 470or have been left out at the decree of his sending. As when he was come, no 471man could have taken away his soul, if he had not laid it down; so, (if we might 472so speak) no God, no person in the Trinity, could have sent him, if he had 473not been willing to come. Venit actu, he is come; there's our comfort: venit 474sponte, he came freely; there's his goodness. And so you have the Action, Venit, 475He came.

pg 68Editor’s Note476Vocare. The next is his Errand, his Purpose, what he came to do, Venit vocare, He Editor’s Note477came to call. It is not vocatus, that Christ came, when we call'd upon him to 478come: Man had no power, no will, no not a faculty to wish that Christ would Editor’s Note479Non occurrere. have come, till Christ did come, and call him. For, it is not Veni occurrere, 480That Christ came to meet them who were upon the way before: Man had no Editor’s Note481August. pre-disposition in Nature, to invite God to come to him. Quid peto, ut venias 482[Q1v] in me, qui non essem si non esses in me? How should I  |   pray at first, that God 483would come into me, whenas I could not onely not have the spirit of prayer, Editor’s Note484but not the spirit of life, and being, except God were in me already? Where 485was I, when Christ call'd me out of my Raggs, nay out of my Ordure, and 486wash'd me in the Sacramental water of Baptism, and made me a Christian so? 487Where was I, when in the loyns of my sinful parents, and in the unclean act of 488generation, Christ call'd me into the Convenant, and made me the childe 489of Christian parents? Could I call upon him, to do either of these for me? or if I may 490seem to have made any step towards Baptism, because I was within the Covenant; 491or towards the Covenant, because I was of Christian parents: yet where was I, 492when God call'd me, when I was not, as though I had been, in the Eternal Decree Editor’s Note493of my Election? What said I for my self, or what said any other for me then, when Editor’s Note494neither I, nor they had any being? God is found of them that sought him not: 495Non venit occurrere, He came not to meet them who were, of themselves, set 496out before.

Editor’s Note497Non cogere. But then, Non venit cogere, He came not to force and compel them, who 498would not be brought into the way: Christ saves no man against his will. Editor’s Note499There is a word crept into the later School, that deludes many a man; they call 500it Irresistibility; and they would have it mean, that when God would have man, 501he will lay hold upon him, by such a power of grace, as no perversness of that 502man, can possibly resist. There is some truth in the thing, soberly understood: 503for the grace of God is more powerful then any resistance of any man or devil. Editor’s Note504But leave the word, where it was hatcht, in the School, and bring it not home, 505not into practice: for he that stays his conversion upon that, God, at one time 506or other, will lay hold upon me by such a power of Grace, as I shall not be able 5071 Pet. 3.19. to resist, may stay, till Christ come again, to preach to the spirits that are in Editor’s Note508prison. Christ beats his Drum, but he does not Press men; Christ is served Editor’s Note509Luk. 14.23. with Voluntaries. There is a Compelle intrare, A forcing of men to come in, 510and fill the house, and furnish the supper: but that was an extraordinary Editor’s Note511commission, and in a case of Necessity: Our ordinary commission is, Ite, 512prædicate; Go, and preach the Gospel, and bring men in so: it is not, Compelle Editor’s Note513intrare, Force men to come in: it is not, Draw the Sword, kindle the Fire, 514Mat. 22.10. winde up the Rack: for, when it was come to that, that men were forc'd to 515come in, (as that Parabolical story is recounted in this Evangelist) the house 516was fill'd, and the supper was furnisht, (the Church was fill'd, and the 517Communion-table frequented) but it was with good and bad too: for men that 518are forc'd to come hither, they are not much the better in themselves, nor 519we much the better assur'd of their Religion, for that: Force and violence, Editor’s Note520pecuniary and bloudy Laws, are not the right way to bring men to Religion, in 521[Q2r] cases where there  |   is nothing in consideration, but Religion meerly. 'Tis true, pg 69Editor’s Note522there is a Compellite Manere, that hath all justice in it; when men have been 523baptiz'd, and bred in a Church, and embrac'd the profession of a Religion, so Editor’s Note524as that their allegiance is complicated with their Religion, then it is proper by 525such Laws to compel them to remain and continue in that Religion; for in the Editor’s Note526Apostacy, and Defection of such men, the State hath a detriment, as well as 527the Church; and therefore the temporal sword may be drawn as well as the 528spiritual; which is the case between those of the Romish perswasion, and us: 529their Laws work directly upon our Religion; they draw blood meerly for that, 530ours work directly upon their allegiance, and punish only where pretence of 531Religion colours a Defection in allegiance. But Christs end being meerly 532spiritual, to constitute a Church, Non venit Occurrere, as he came not to meet 533man, man was not so forward; so he came not to compel man, to deal upon any 534that was so backward; for, Venit vocare, He came to call.

Editor’s Note535Now, this calling, implies a voice, as well as a Word; it is by the Word, but Veni vocare. Editor’s Note536not by the Word read at home, though that be a pious exercise; nor by the 537word submitted to private interpretation; but by the Word preached, according Editor’s Note538to his Ordinance, and under the Great Seal, of his blessing upon his 539Ordinance. So that preaching is this calling; and therefore, as if Christ do 540appear to any man, in the power of a miracle, or in a private inspiration, yet Editor’s Note541he appears but in weakness, as in an infancy, till he speak, till he bring a 542man to the hearing of his voice, in a setled Church, and in the Ordinance of 543preaching: so how long soever Christ have dwelt in any State, or any Church, Editor’s Note544if he grow speechless, he is departing; if there be a discontinuing, or slackning 545of preaching, there is a danger of loosing Christ. Adam was not made in 546Paradise, but brought thither, call'd thither: the sons of Adam are not born Editor’s Note547in the Church, but call'd thither by Baptism; Non Nascimur sed re-nascimur August. Editor’s Note548Christiani; No man is born a Christian, but call'd into that state by regen-549eration. And therefore, as the Consummation of our happiness is in that, that Editor’s Note550we shall be call'd at last, into the Kingdom of Glory, in the Venite Benedicti, Editor’s Note551Come ye blessed, and enter into your Masters joy: so is it a blessed Inchoation 552of that happiness, that we are called into the Kingdom of Grace, and made 553partakers of his Word and Sacraments, and other Ordinances by the way. And 554so you have his Action, and Errand, He came, and, came to call.

Editor’s Note555The next, is the persons upon whom he works, whom he calls; where Non Justos. 556we have first the Negative, the Exclusive, Non Justos, Not the righteous. In Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus557which, Grego: Nyssene, is so tender, so compassionate, so loath, that this G. Nyssen 558Negative should fall upon any man, that any man should be excluded from 559possibility of salvation, as that  |   he carries it wholly upon Angels: Christ [Q2v] 560took not the nature of Angels, Christ came not to call Angels: But this Exclusion 561falls upon men; What men? upon the righteous: Who are they? We have two Editor’s Note562Expositions, both of Jesuites, both good; I mean the Expositions, not the 563Jesuites: they differ somewhat; for, though the Jesuites agree well enough, Editor’s Note564too well, in State-business, in Courts, (how Kings shall be depos'd, and pg 70Editor’s Note565how massacred; how Kingdoms shall be deluded with Dispensations, and 566how invaded with Forces, they agree well enough) yet in Schools, and in Editor’s Note567Maldonat. Expositions, they differ, as well as others. The first, Maldonat, he says, That as 568Mat. 18.12. in that parable, where Christ says, that the good shepherd left the ninety nine 569sheep, that had kept their pastures, and went to seek that one, which was strayed, he 570did not mean, that there is but one sheep of a hundred, that does go astray; but 571that if that were the case, he would go to seek that one: so when Christ says 572here, he came not to call the righteous, he does not mean that there were any 573righteous; but if the world were full of righteous men, so that he might make 574up the number of his Elect, and fill up the rooms of the fallen Angels, out of Editor’s Note575Barradas. them; yet he would come to call sinners too. The other Jesuite Barradas, (not 576altogether Barrabas) he says, Christ said, Non Justos, Not the righteous, because 577if there had been any righteous, he needed not to have come: according to that Editor’s Note578August. of S. Aug. Si homo non periisset, filius hominis non venisset; If Man had not 579fallen, and lain irrecoverably under that fall, the Son of God had not come to 580suffer the shame, and the pain of the Cross: so that they differ but in this; If 581there had been any righteous, Christ needed not to have come; and though 582there had been righteous men, yet he would have come; but in this, they, and 583Rom. 8.30. all agree, that there were none righteous. None? Why, whom he predestinated, 584those he called; and were not they whom he predestinated, and elected to 585salvation, righteous? Even the Elect themselves have not a constant righteous-586ness in this world: such a righteousness, as does always denominate them, so, 587as that they can always say to their own conscience, or so as the Church can 588always say of them, This is a righteous man: No, nor so, as that God, who 589looks upon a sinner with the eyes of the Church, and considers a sinner, with 590the heart and sense of the Church, and speaks of him with the tongue of the 591Church, can say of him, then, when he is under unrepented sin, This man is 592righteous: howsoever, if he look upon him, in that Decree which lies in his 593bosom, and by which he hath infallibly ordain'd him to salvation, he may say Editor’s Note594so. No man here, though Elect, hath an equal and constant righteousness; 595nay, no man hath any such righteousness of his own, as can save him; for 596howsoever it be made his, by that Application, or Imputation, yet the right-597Hilarie. eousness that saves him, is the very righteousness of Christ himself. S. Hilaries Editor’s Note598[Q3r] Question  |   then, hath a full Answer, Erant quibus non erat necesse ut veniret? 599Were there any that needed not Christs coming? No; there were none; Editor’s Note600who then are these righteous? we answer with S. Chrysost. and S. Hiero. and 601S. Ambrose, and all the stream of the Fathers; They are Justi sua Justitia, those 602who thought themselves righteous; those who relyed upon their own right-603eousness; those who mistook their righteousness, as the Laodiceans did their Editor’s Note604Apoc. 3.17. riches; they said, They were rich, and had need of nothing; and they were Editor’s Note605Rom. 10.3. wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked. So, these men, being 606ignorant of Gods righteousness, and going about to establish a righteousness of their 607own, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God; that is, depend 608wholly upon the righteousness of Christ. He calls it Suam, their righteousness, 609because they thought they had a righteousness of their own: either in the 610faculties of Nature, or in the exaltation of those faculties by the help of pg 71611the Law: And he calls it Suam, their righteousness, because they thought none Editor’s Note612had it but they. And upon this Pelagian righteousness, it thought Nature Editor’s Note613sufficient without Grace; or upon this righteousness of the Cathari, the 614Puritans in the Primitive Church, that thought the Grace which they had 615received sufficient, and that upon that stock they were safe, and become 616impeccable, and therefore left out of the Lords Prayer, that Petition, Dimitte 617nobis, Forgive us our trespasses; upon this Pelagian righteousness, and this 618Puritan righteousness, Christ does not work. He left out the righteous, not 619that there were any such, but such as thought themselves so; and he took Editor’s Note620in sinners, not all effectually, that were simply so, but such as the sense of 621their sins, and the miserable state that that occasioned, brought to an 622acknowledgement, that they were so; Non Justos, sed peccatores.

Editor’s Note623Here then enters our Affirmative, our Inclusive, Who are called; peccatores: Peccatores. 624for here no man asks the Question of the former Branch: there we asked, 625Whether there were any righteous? and we found none; here we ask not 626whether there were any sinners, for we can finde no others, no not one. He 627came to call sinners, and only sinners; that is, only in that capacity, in that Editor’s Note628contemplation, as they were sinners; for of that vain and frivolous opinion, 629that got in, and got hold in the later School, That Christ had come in the flesh, 630though Adam had stood in his innocence; That though Man had not needed 631Christ as a Redeemer, yet he would have come to have given man the greatest 632Dignity that Nature might possibly receive, which was to be united to the 633Divine Nature: of this Opinion, one of those Jesuites whom we named before, Editor’s Note634Maldonat, who oftentimes making his use of whole sentences of Calvins, says 635in the end, This is a good Exposition, but that he is an Heretick that makes it. Editor’s Note636He says also of this Opinion, That Christ had come, though Adam had stood; 637this is an ill  |   Opinion, but that they are Catholicks that have said it. He came [Q3v] 638for sinners; for sinners onely; else he had not come: and then he came for all 639kind of sinners: for, upon those words of our Saviours, to the High Priests and Mat. 21.31. Editor’s Note640Pharisees, Publicans and Harlots go into the Kingdom of Heaven before you, good 641Expositors note, that in those two Notations, Publicans and Harlots, many 642sorts of sinners are implyed: in the name of Publicans, all such, as by their very Editor’s Note643profession and calling, are led into tentations, and occasions of sin, to which 644some Callings are naturally more exposed then other, such as can hardly be 645exercised without sin; and then in the Name of Harlots, and prostitute 646Women, such as cannot at all be exercised without sin; whose very profession 647is sin: and yet for these, for the worst of these, for all these, there is a voice 648gone out, Christ is come to call sinners, onely sinners, all sinners. Comes he Editor’s Note649then thus for sinners? What an advantage had S. Paul then, to be of this Editor’s Note650Quorum, and the first of them; Quorum Ego Maximus, That when Christ came Editor’s Note651to save sinners, he should be the greatest sinner, the first in that Election? If Editor’s Note652we should live to see that acted, which Christ speaks of at the last day, Two in Mat. 24.41. 653the field, the one taken, the other left, should we not wonder to see him that were 654left, lay hold upon him that were taken, and offer to go to Heaven before him, 655therefore, because he had killed more men in the field, or robbed more men Editor’s Note656upon the High-way, or supplanted more in the Court, or oppressed more in pg 72657the City? to make the multiplicity of sins, his title to Heaven? Or, two women 658grinding at the Mill, one taken, the other left; to see her that was left, offer to 659precede the other into Heaven, therefore, because she had prostituted her self 660to more men, then the other had done? Is this S. Pauls Quorum, his Dignity, 661his Prudency; I must be saved, because I am the greatest sinner? God forbid: 662God forbid we should presume upon salvation, because we are sinners; or sin 663therefore, that we may be surer of salvation. S. Pauls title to Heaven, was, not Editor’s Note664that he was primum peccator, but primus Confessor, that he first accused himself, 665& came to a sense of his miserable estate; for that implies that which is our last 666word, and the effect of Christs calling, That whomsoever he calls, or how, or Editor’s Note667Non ad satisfactionem. whensoever, it is ad Resipiscentiam, to repentance. It is not ad satisfactionem, Editor’s Note668Christ does not come to call us, to make satisfaction to the justice of God: he Editor’s Note669call'd us to a heavy, to an impossible account, if he call'd us to that. If the death 670of Christ Jesus himself, be but a satisfaction for the punishment of my sins, Editor’s Note671(for nothing less then that could have made that satisfaction) what can a 672temporary Purgatory of days or hours do towards a satisfaction? And if the 673torments of Purgatory it self, sustain'd by my self, be nothing towards a 674satisfaction, what can an Evenings fast, or an Ave Marie, from my Executor, or 675[Q4r] my Assignee, after I am dead, do towards  |   such a satisfaction? Canst thou 676satisfie the justice of God, for all that blood which thou hast drawn from his 677Son, in thy blasphemous Oaths and Execrations; or for all that blood of his, 678which thou hast spilt upon the ground, upon the Dunghil, in thy unworthy 679receiving the Sacrament? Canst thou satisfie his justice, for having made 680his Blessings the occasions, and the instruments of thy sins; or for the 681Dilapidations of his Temple, in having destroyed thine own body by thine Editor’s NoteCritical Apparatus682Job 9.3. incontinency, and making that, the same flesh with a Harlot? If he will contend 683with thee, thou canst not answer him one of a thousand: Nay, a thousand men 684could not answer one sin of one man.

Editor’s Note685Non ad Gloriam. It is not then Ad satisfactionem; but it is not Ad gloriam neither. Christ does 686not call us to an immediate possession of glory, without doing any thing 687between. Our Glorification was in his intention, as soon as our Election: in 688God who sees all things at once, both entred at once; but in the Execution of 689his Decrees here, God carries us by steps; he calls us to Repentance. The Editor’s Note690Farmers of this imaginary satisfaction, they that sell it at their own price, in Editor’s Note691their Indulgencies, have done well, to leave out this Repentance, both in 692this text in S. Matthew, and where the same is related by S. Mark. In both 693places, they tell us, that Christ came to call sinners, but they do not tell us to 694what; as though it might be enough to call them to their market, to buy their Editor’s Note695Indulgencies. The Holy Ghost tells us; it is to repentance: Are ye to learn now 696what that is? He that cannot define Repentance, he that cannot spell it, may 697have it; and he that hath written whole books, great Volumes of it, may be 698without it. In one word, (one word will not do it, but in two words) it is Editor’s Note699Aversio, and Conversio; it is a turning from our sins, and a returning to our pg 73700God. It is both: for in our Age, in our Sickness, in any impotencie towards 701a sin, in any satiety of a sin, we turn from our sin, but we turn not to God; we 702turn to a sinful delight in the memory of our sins, and a sinful desire that Editor’s Note703we might continue in them. So also in a storm at sea, in any imminent calamity, 704at land, we turn to God, to a Lord, Lord; but at the next calm, and at the next 705deliverance, we turn to our sin again. He onely is the true Israelite, the true Editor’s Note706penitent, that hath Nathaniel's mark, In quo non est dolus, In whom there is no 707deceit: For, to sin, and think God sees it not, because we confess it not; to 708confess it as sin, and yet continue the practise of it; to discontinue the practise 709of it, and continue the possession of that, which was got by that sin; all this is 710deceit, and destroys, evacuates, annihilates all Repentance.

711To recollect all, and to end all: Christ justifies feasting; he feasts you with 712himself: And feasting in an Apostles house, in his own house; he feasts you Editor’s Note713often here: And he admits Publicans to this feast, men whose full and open Editor’s Note714life, in Court, must  |   necessarily expose them, to many hazards of sin: and the [Q4v] Editor’s Note715Pharisees, our adversaries, calumniate us for this; they say we admit men Editor’s Note716too easily to the Sacrament; without confession, without contrition, without 717satisfaction. God in heaven knows we do not; less, much less then they. For Editor’s Note718Confession, we require publike confession in the Congregation: And in time 719of Sickness, upon the death-bed, we enjoyn private and particular Confession, Editor’s Note720if the conscience be oppressed: And if any man do think, that that which is 721necessary for him, upon his death-bed, is necessary, every time he comes to 722the Communion, and so come to such a confession, if any thing lie upon him, 723as often as he comes to the Communion, we blame not, we disswade not, we 724dis-counsel not that tenderness of conscience, and that safe proceeding in 725that good soul. For Contrition, we require such a contrition as amounts 726to a full detestation of the sin, and a full resolution, not to relapse into that sin: 727and this they do not in the Romane Church, where they have soupled and Editor’s Note728mollified their Contrition into an Attrition. For Satisfaction, we require such 729a satisfaction as Man can make to Man, in goods or fame: and for the satis-Editor’s Note730faction due to God, we require that every man, with a sober and modest, but 731yet with a confident and infallible assurance believe, the satisfaction given to 732God, by Christ, for all mankinde, to have been given and accepted for him 733in particular. This Christ, with joy and thanksgiving we acknowledge to be 734come; to be come actually; we expect no other after him, we joyn no other to 735him: And come freely, without any necessity impos'd by any above him, and 736without any invitation from us here: Come, not to meet us, who were not 737able to rise, without him; but yet not to force us, to save us against our wills, 738but come to call us, by his Ordinances in his Church; us, not as we pretend 739any righteousness of our own, but as we confess our selves to be sinners, Editor’s Note740and sinners led by this call, to Repentance; which Repentance, is an ever-741lasting Divorce from our beloved sin, and an everlasting Marriage and Editor’s Note742super-induction of our ever-living God.pg 74

Notes Settings

Notes

Editor’s Note
Text. F26, O3r–Q4v (no. 8, 101–20). There are no other witnesses. PS record one stop-press correction (l. 119), noted in the tns to this edition; collation has identified one more (l. 349). Given the generally poor quality of F26 as a text, this sermon is relatively clean, with only seven other errors requiring editorial emendation (ll. 230, 231, 287, 342, 367, 389, and 410); in addition, four marginal notes to scriptural texts are erroneous in F26 (ll. 6, 18, 282, and 682). The emendation of 'them' for 'him' at l. 342 is made astutely by an early reader in F2610 (thanks to Sebastiaan Verweij for this information); the incorrect reading is most easily explained by eyeskip occasioned by D's parallel phrasing (cf. ll. 340–1). At ll. 112–13 PS suggest that the words 'ad gloriam' have been compressed into one word; in fact this appears merely to be a case of very narrow leading between the words. The compositor either lacked supply of italic 'f' or had a fouled 'f' case, since it is frequently replaced by roman (e.g. ll. 112, 123, 125, 228, 229, 265, 311, 358, 359, 466, 494, 568, 667, and 683); at ll. 562, 563, and 575 upper-case roman 'J' has similarly been replaced by italic.
Editor’s Note
Headnote. D preached this sermon on Sunday 30 Apr. 1626, the third Sunday after Easter (which fell on 9 Apr.) and only twelve days after Sermon 3 in this vol. For the general religious and political context of D's preaching in Apr. 1626 see Headnote to that sermon. As the only extant sermon by D known to have been preached to the king's household below stairs (the Household) this provides a fascinating contrast with that preached to the household above stairs (the Chamber) two weeks previously. D's syntax is often far simpler than that of the 18 Apr. sermon; he pays no attention to the vexed questions of Bible translation that had occupied him there, and his range of textual reference is considerably reduced: in contrast to the 18 Apr. sermon's twenty-seven citations (five to the Fathers, and twenty-two to other authors), this sermon contains only fourteen, several of which are inaccurate (for further details, see below, cmts); eight of these are supposedly to the Fathers (Augustine is cited four times (though one of these references is in fact to Gregory the Great); Ambrose twice (though one reference is to St Bonaventure); Gregory of Nyssa twice (though one of these is in fact to Gregory the Great), and Clement of Alexandria, Hilary, Chrysostom, and Jerome once) and six to others (the Jesuit Maldonado is cited twice; Barradas, Lapide, Cicero, and Chrysologos once). At times he sounds positively patronizing (e.g. ll. 695–6), and he employs some plodding humour (e.g. ll. 562–3; 575–6).
At court, the sermon to the Household was delivered early in the morning; that to the Chamber at around 11 a.m., before the main meal of the day. Members of the Chamber could attend sermons to the Household, but not vice versa. Like the Chamber (see Introduction), the Household in 1626 was experiencing change and scrutiny in the months following Charles's accession. This section of the court was concerned above all with provision: its roughly 305 officers (plus around 195 servants' servants) were responsible, under the authority of the Lord Steward and his Board of Greencloth, for the supply and preparation of food and drink that would be consumed by the Chamber, as well as for the management of finances required for this. Its departments included the cellar, the kitchen, the larder, the bakehouse, the woodyard, and the servants of the hall. It was notorious for waste, due to inefficiency, incompetence, and corruption. The first efforts at reform took place in the year of Donne's sermon; a more thorough overhaul took place between 1629 and 1632. Knowledge of abuses in the Household was widespread, and had been the subject of a heated attack by Sir Edward Coke at the Oxford Parliament of 1625; his focus was on the needless multiplication of offices and on the ability of merchants to obtain places. The Household was in flux in another way. Since the death of the Marquess of Hamilton in 1625, its head office of Lord Steward had lain vacant, with the duties in parliament time being undertaken by William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke, and Edward Somerset, fourth Earl of Worcester (for the 1625 and 1626 parliaments respectively). At the time that Donne was preaching, therefore, Somerset was temporary Lord Steward. The situation would be resolved in Aug. 1626, when Pembroke took over permanently, giving his office of Lord Chamberlain (the head of the Chamber) to his brother, Philip Herbert (later fourth Earl of Pembroke). Pembroke and Somerset were among the most important figures at court, and had played significant parts in Charles's coronation; furthermore, in early 1626 Pembroke was exercising his considerable parliamentary influence against his former protégé, Buckingham. But the two men also represented very different styles of doctrinal affiliation: Somerset was a conformist, but sheltered a Jesuit at his estate and granted the Order lands and farms; his wife was rumoured to be a Roman Catholic, and several of his children certainly were. Pembroke was known for his godly Protestantism and anti-Spanish convictions (as Chancellor of Oxford University he had opposed the Arminian faction), yet at the York House conference had spoken against the doctrine of predestination. Donne was acquainted with Pembroke, and sat on the Court of High Commission with him in Nov. 1627, but we know nothing of the state of their relations at this point; it is quite possible that they were strained. As Donne was preaching, courtiers and churchmen were jostling for position––a situation thrown into particularly strong light by the hitherto unnoticed fact that on the day that he delivered his sermon to the Household, the preacher to the Chamber was William Laud himself (The Works of … Laud, ed. Bliss, iii. 189).
A defining feature of D's sermon is its concentration on faith and action in daily life, and its relatively simple structure reinforces the focus on his scriptural text's efficacy and applicability in its original context and in the present. The exordium seems at first curiously disjointed from the sermon proper and its focus on the context of Christ's words. D begins with a rather schoolmasterly disquisition on the discrepancies between the Gospels, using this to establish some of his main themes in the minds of his auditory: the examples of things that appear in only one Gospel move from the domestic (ll. 6–16) to the ceremonial (ll. 17–27), then to the personal and devotional (ll. 28–37; cf. PS i.5.340–54), and, finally to Christ's approval of the use of his creatures (ll. 40–5). D's example of something common to all four evangelists raises another of his sermon's primary concerns: the inefficacy of human works and actions without God's grace (ll. 45–53). Finally, he explains that his text appears in all the Gospels except John's because St John's focus was on the divine nature of Christ (ll. 57–60). This emphasis on Christ incarnate and among his people mirrors D's pastoral aim in his sermon to focus on the obligations and the spiritual dangers of daily life. This contrasts with his 18 Apr. sermon, whose movement was in precisely the opposite direction, from earthly to heavenly things (and whose text was from John's Gospel).
While D rejects a RC (or extreme Arminian) works-based theory of justification, he also avoids the opposite extreme: in Part 2 of the sermon he explains that Christ came neither to meet man nor to compel him, dismissing the idea of irresistible grace to 'the later School'. Part 1 is both historical and contemporary in its focus. In establishing the context of Christ's words it speaks to concerns of the Household below stairs, since their occasion was a feast at St Matthew's house. D defends feasting, the use of God's creatures, and conversation; he goes on to expose the Pharisees' hypocrisy and lack of charity in seeking to alienate the master from his servants. He explains that the 'righteous' in the text are those who think themselves to be righteous, and that its 'sinners' are those who acknowledge their sins. They do this by answering the call to repentance: in this section D closely follows Calvin's discussion in the Institutes (see further below, cmts), and responds to calumnies directed by contemporary Pharisees (RCs) at the English Church. Thus D's sermon moves from an acknowledgement of the fruitlessness of men's actions to an exhortation to take action. It invokes the technical and controversial debates over free will and necessity only to sideline them almost entirely, and to redirect his hearers' attention to the implications for them, in their daily lives.
Editor’s Note
Sources. As noted above, D's range of reference in this sermon is comparatively narrow, and at times inaccurate. As well as making use of standard sources such as VG and Nicholas of Lyra's postils, he draws silently on Calvin's discussion of the necessity of Christ's incarnation (Institutes, 2. 12. 6) and repentance (Institutes, 1. 4, 1. 5, 3. 3. 5). In his riposte to RC attacks on the practice of penance in the English Church his phrasing is close (though whether this is deliberate or not is hard to tell) to Richard Montagu, A Gagg for the New Gospell? No: a new gagg for an old goose (1624), STC 18038, M2v; N1r. As the cmts below demonstrate, D's use of his sources in this sermon is generally pragmatic and local; this is a further contrast to Sermon 3 in this vol., in which he engages profoundly with Augustine.
Editor’s Note
Further reading. For the only other examples of sermons explicitly directed to the Household that I have been able to identify, see George Meriton, The Christian Mans Assuring House. And A Sinners Conuersion. Two Sermons, The former, preached before the Prince his Highnesse at St. Iames: The other to his Maiesties Houshold at Whitehall, on Sunday the 6. of February (1614), STC 17837, and John Gore, The Man for Heaven. A Sermon Preached at the Court to his Majesties Houshold, Anno Domini, 1637 (1639), STC 12073. On the structure of the household see G. E. Aylmer, The King's Servants: The Civil Service of Charles I, 1625–1642 (1961), 472–3; on reform, see Aylmer, 'Attempts at Administrative Reform, 1625–1640', EHR 72 (1957), 229–59 at 230, 246–8; on the personnel and equipment attached to the Household, see Arthur MacGregor, 'The Household below Stairs: Officers and Equipment of the Stuart Court', in id. (ed.), The Late King's Goods: Collections, Possessions, and Patronage of Charles I in the Light of the Commonwealth Sale Inventories (Oxford, 1989), 367–86. On this sermon see McCullough, 'Preacher at Court', 185–6, who briefly compares it with Sermon 3 in this vol.; Jeffrey Johnson, The Theology of John Donne (Cambridge, 1999), 92 ff. (on repentance); for a fuller comparison, see David Colclough, 'Upstairs, Downstairs: Doctrine and Decorum in Two Sermons by John Donne', HLQ 73 (2010), 163–91.
Critical Apparatus
6 1:19] ed., PS; 1:14 F26
Editor’s Note
8. temper: 'mental balance or composure, esp. under provocation of any kind' (OED, 3).
Editor’s Note
8. distemper: 'deranged or disordered condition of the body or mind' (OED, 4).
Editor’s Note
11. put … away privily: D quotes directly from AV.
Editor’s Note
13. apprehensive: 'in the habit of seizing, ready to seize or embrace (an offer or opportunity)' (OED, 1).
Critical Apparatus
18 7:31] F26; 7:32 PS
Editor’s Note
21. circumstances: 'That which is not of the essence or substance' (OED, 8).
Editor’s Note
29. the history … Christ: for D's very similar use of this passage from Luke cf. PS i.5.340–61 ('A Sermon Preached to Queen Anne, at Denmarke-house. December. 14. 1617.')
Editor’s Note
35–6. mindes stray … here: for a similar warning about inattention at prayer, cf. PS vii.10.271–84.
Editor’s Note
36–7. sought him sorrowing: Luke 2: 48.
Editor’s Note
37. sought … found him: Luke 2: 46.
Editor’s Note
38. Ordinance: 'A practice or usage authoritatively enjoined or prescribed; esp. a religious or ceremonial observance' (OED, 4.a). A key term in this sermon, occurring seven times, as D emphasizes the orderly nature of Christ's proceeding and its status as a pattern for human behaviour in the church.
Editor’s Note
45. supply of wine: D's example anticipates his celebration of Christ's approval of feasting.
Editor’s Note
48–9. That he … shooes: Matt. 3: 11; Mark 1: 7; Luke 3: 16; John. 1: 27.
Editor’s Note
50–3. best endeavours … draw: This important passage lays the ground for D's explication throughout the sermon of the theology of grace. His understanding of this complex and vexed issue is at once orthodox according to the established tenets of the English Church (in, for example, Article 10 of the Thirty-Nine Articles) and determinedly moderate, avoiding the more extreme and contentious doctrines of the godly (puritans, who denied man's free will) or the Arminians (who sought to extend it). D wishes to emphasize that without God's grace man's efforts and works are fruitless (indeed, that they must originate in and proceed from God's grace), but that man's will must play some part in the process of justification. Man's will is thus not entirely free to seek Christ and attain grace, but nor is man entirely dependent on the irresistible grace of God. 'Unavailable' here has the sense of incapable of producing a desired result; of no avail, ineffectual (see OED, 'available' 1). Cf. Article 10 of the Thirty-Nine Articles. See further Headnote and cmts below.
Editor’s Note
55–6. interpretative … presumptive universality: that is, a universality which can be inferred or deduced (see OED, 'interpretative', 2; 'presumptive', 2).
Editor’s Note
57. three … four: in addition to D's text from Matthew, Mark 2: 17; Luke 5: 32.
Editor’s Note
70. quick: 'pregnant with a live fetus; spec. at a stage of pregnancy when movements of the fetus have been felt' (OED, 5.b).
Editor’s Note
77. conversation: a key term for D in this sermon, recurring eighteen times, and directly addressed to his below-stairs auditory; see further Headnote. D combines OED senses 1 and 2, 'the action of living or having one's being in a place or among persons. Also fig. of one's spiritual being' and 'the action of consorting or having dealings with others; living together; commerce, intercourse, society, intimacy'.
Editor’s Note
96–102. and that's … errand: D's brusque and simple idiom, using the aphaeresis 'that's', is typical of this sermon's homely style.
Editor’s Note
106. a blessed seal: D frequently describes Christ's sacrifice as a seal set to his testament; see e.g. Sermon 3 in this vol., l. 611; PS ii.2.60–1; ii.11.83; ii.15.477; iii.9.658. Here the seal is Christ's affirmation that he comes to call sinners.
Editor’s Note
107. naturalization: 'the action of admitting a foreigner or immigrant to the position and rights of citizenship, or of investing with the privileges of a native-born subject; the fact of being so admitted or invested' (OED, 1). The naturalization of the Scots was a subject of some contention under James VI and I, and D possessed a copy of Egerton's Speech touching the Post-nati (1609), STC 7540 (Keynes L70). D implies a contrast between the Old and New covenants in his parallel references to banishment from the 'Ark' and naturalization in the 'Kingdom'.
Editor’s Note
112–13. ad satisfactionem … gloriam: Again D outlines a middle way between human action and passivity in the path to salvation; cf. above ll. 50–3 and, for the full elaboration of this notion, below ll. 685–710.
Editor’s Note
115. frame: combining OED, 7.a and 10.a: 'a structure, fabric, or engine constructed of parts fitted together', or more specifically 'a structure of timbers, joists, etc. fitted together to form the skeleton of a building': D imagines the structure of his sermon in architectural terms. Cf. PS v.12.20–31.
Editor’s Note
116. compass: closest to OED, 8.a: 'circumscribed area or space; in wider sense, space, area, extent'.
Editor’s Note
116. design'd: sketched, outlined (see OED, 'design', v., II.13.a)
Critical Apparatus
119 your] F261–11, 13–15; you F2612
Editor’s Note
119. depend: 'to follow or flow from, result from' (OED, 2.c); cf. 'flow out' (l. 117).
Critical Apparatus
121 justified] ed., PS; ju- | fied F26
Editor’s Note
122–3. Ambrose … Frustra fecisset: in fact Bonaventure, Commentaria in Quatuor Libros Sententiarum, 2 a. 1 q. 1, 4: 'si ergo primo et secundo die non erant plantae, quae foverentur, nec animalia nec homines, quibus ista lux aliquod ferret obsequium, videtur, quod Deus frustra fecisset eam in primo dierum' ('if, therefore, on the first and second day there were no plants to be warmed, nor animals, nor men, to whom this light would be of use, it seems that God would have made it in vain on the first day'). D uses the same tag (again attributed to Ambrose) in PS iv.3.803–5. This is the first of several misattributed patristic citations; see further below, ll. 311–12, 557–9 and cmts; Headnote.
Editor’s Note
127. Our Mythologists: the interpretation of classical myths as containing moral, philosophical, or even theological messages played a large part in early modern literate culture, from school texts such as Thomas Cooper, Thesaurus Linguae Romanae & Britannicae (1565), STC 5686 (which arranges information alphabetically) to the celebrated Natale Conti (Natalis Comes), Mythologiae sive Explicationis Fabularum Libri Decem (1567).
Critical Apparatus
130 make] F26, Alford; made PS
Editor’s Note
130–1. torments … to eat: D refers to the myth of Tantalus, a son of Zeus who was condemned for his crime (the theft of the gods' ambrosia or the sacrifice of his son Pelops) to the underworld (Tartarus), where he stood in a pool of water beneath a fruit tree; whenever he attempted to eat or drink, the water and fruit receded. His story is told in Homer, Odyssey, 11. 582–92; Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4. 458–9, 6. 172–6 and 403–11; Cooper, Thesaurus, Q3r–v; it is recounted and interpreted in Conti, Mythologiae (Padua, 1616), 6. 18, 2T4r–2Vr and appears in Andrea Alciato, Emblemata (Padua, 1621), emblem 85, 2A1r–v, and Geffrey Whitney, A Choice of Emblemes (Leiden, 1586), K1v. D's reference to such a vivid image is perhaps another sign of his estimation of the Household's capacities.
Editor’s Note
134–41. those three … it: for debates concerning antediluvian vegetarianism see Tertullian, De Jejuniis, 4 (PL 2. 958C–959A); Jerome, Adversus Jovinianum, 1. 18 (PL 23. 236C–237B); John Calvin, A Commentarie of Iohn Caluine, vpon the first booke of Moses called Genesis, trans. Thomas Tymme (1578), STC 4393, C8v; Andrew Willet, Hexapla in Genesin (1608), STC 25683, B3v–B4r; William Perkins, The whole treatise of the cases of conscience (Cambridge, 1606), STC 19669, 2L6v–2L7r.
Editor’s Note
145–6. God … manifold sacrifices: i.e. in those offered to Him under the Law in the OT; balanced by His offering of Himself as a sacrifice in Christ in the NT in the following passage.
Editor’s Note
149. Marriage-supper … Lamb: cf. Rev. 19: 9.
Editor’s Note
149–50. That mensa … snare: cf. Ps. 68: 23 (Vulg.); AV 69: 22. D perhaps recalls the phrasing in Rom. 11: 9, where Paul quotes the Psalm: 'Let their table be made a snare' (neither Geneva nor Bishops' has 'be made').
Editor’s Note
151–4. mensa propositionum … renew'd: in addition to D's marginal citation of Num. 4: 7, cf. Exod. 25: 30; Lev. 24: 5–9.
Editor’s Note
156. Passover: The Jewish festival of Pesach, observed on the fourteenth day of the month of Nisan and commemorating the escape from Egyptian captivity. See Exod. 12; Num. 9: 1–14, 28: 16–25; Deut. 16: 1–6; Josh. 5: 10; 2 Kgs. 23: 21–23; 2 Chron. 30: 1–5, 35: 1–19; Ezra 6: 19–22; Ezek. 45: 21–4. On the Jewish festivals discussed by D in ll. 155–76, see Rodolphus Hospinianus (Rudolf Wirth), De Festis Iudæorum et Ethnicorum (Zürich, 1611), A1r–A2r; A7v–B1r; Carlo Sigonio, De Republica Hebræorum Libri VII (Frankfurt, 1583), F8v–H6r. D refers to Sigonio's work in Biathanatos, 75.
Editor’s Note
157. Pentecost: feast held seven weeks (fifty days) after Easter Sunday, commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles; also known as Whitsunday. See Acts 2: 1–4.
Editor’s Note
157. Trumpets: the Jewish festival of Rosh Hashanah, observed on the first day of the month of Tishri. See Lev. 23: 23–5; Num. 29: 1–6. Yom Kippur, the day of atonement, falls on the tenth day.
Editor’s Note
157. Tabernacles: the Jewish feast of Sukkot, observed on the fifteenth day of the month of Tishri; a harvest festival. See Exod. 23: 16, 34: 22; Lev. 23: 34–43; Num. 29: 12–40; Deut. 16: 13–15; Ezra 3: 4; Neh. 8: 13–18.
Editor’s Note
158. Humiliabitis animas: in addition to D's citation of Lev. 16: 29, cf. Lev. 23: 27, 32; Num. 29: 7; 30: 14. D is either using LXX in a Latin translation or translating back into Latin; Vulg. has 'adfligetis animas'.
Editor’s Note
159. Lætaberis coram Domino: in addition to D's citation of Deut. 16: 11, cf. Deut. 12: 18. D again relies on LXX or, in this case, T-J; Vulg. has 'epulaberis'.
Editor’s Note
162–4. some Interpreters … chearfulness: see e.g. Jean de Lorin, Commentarii in Deuterono-mium (Lyon, 1625), 3E2v (on Deut. 16: 14, referring back to Deut. 16: 11 and comparing Lev. 16: 29 in a marg. note). D glances critically at RC practice; cf. 'Evenings fast', l. 674. Note that Christ replies to the disciples of John's question about why his disciples do not fast in the passage immediately following D's text, Matt. 9: 14–17.
Editor’s Note
165–6. these holy Convocations: D uses 'convocation' in its general sense, 'an assembly of persons called together or met in answer to a summons' (OED 2). It is, though, worth bearing in mind that D was Prolocutor of the 1626 Convocation of the Canterbury Province of the Church of England, which sat from 7 Feb. to 16 June; see further Headnote to Sermon 3 in this vol. D's use of the plural is surely deliberate, since the service for the household below stairs took place early in the morning, being followed at around 11 a.m. by the service for the Chamber, which immediately preceded the main meal of the day (see next cmt).
Editor’s Note
166–7. chearful use … creatures: in eating a meal; 'creature' = 'material comfort; something which promotes well-being, esp. food' (OED, 1.c, drawing on 1 Tim. 4: 4).
Editor’s Note
167. send out … want: scraps from the court's meals were given to the poor (though some were also allocated to the Groom of the Stool), through the auspices of the Lord Almoner (see Sermon 3 in this vol., Headnote).
Editor’s Note
168. Nehem. 8. 10: 'send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared'.
Editor’s Note
168. Esth. 9.22: 'they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor'.
Editor’s Note
170. Stationary: belonging to a fixed date.
Editor’s Note
172–3. the Encænia … Temple: cf. 1 Macc. 4: 59. D's sermon for the dedication of the new chapel at Lincoln's Inn in 1623 was entitled Encænia. The Feast of Dedication. Celebrated At Lincolnes Inne, in a Sermon there vpon Ascension day, 1623 (London, 1623), STC 7039 (PS iv.15).
Editor’s Note
173. their Dispersion: the Jewish diaspora, following the forced expulsion of the Jews from Israel and Judah and the destruction of the First Temple in the 8th–6th cc. bce and the destruction of the Second Temple and Roman occupation of Judea in the 1st–2nd cc. ce.
Critical Apparatus
174 Letitiæ] F26; Lætitiæ PS
Editor’s Note
174. Festum Letitiæ: the Feast of Rejoicing in the Law (festum laetitiae legis), or Simchat Torah, occurs at the end of Sukkot (see l. 157 cmt) and marks the end of one annual cycle of reading the Torah and the beginning of another.
Editor’s Note
176–7. when Christ … Funeral-solemnities: Jairus is named as one of the rulers of the synagogue in the accounts of this miracle in Mark 5: 22 and Luke 8: 41, but not in Matthew's (9: 23).
Editor’s Note
182. not … mountains too: cf. 1 Kgs. 20: 28.
Editor’s Note
188. profession: combining OED, 4.a ('the declaration of belief in and obedience to religion, or of acceptance of and conformity to the faith and principles of any religious community; (hence) the faith or religion which a person professes') and 7.a ('an occupation in which a professed knowledge of some subject, field, or science is applied; a vocation or career').
Editor’s Note
189. Ministery: i.e. the priesthood.
Editor’s Note
191. relictis retibus … him: Matt. 4: 20, 4: 22; Mark 1: 18. The apostles are named as Simon Peter, Andrew, James the son of Zebedee, and his brother John.
Editor’s Note
193. Christ found … resurrection: cf. John 21.
Editor’s Note
194. S. Luke: Luke names the publican as Levi, not Matthew.
Editor’s Note
195–6. Basil … contempserit: Basil, Regula ad Monachos, Interrogatio IV (PL 103. 496D–497A).
Editor’s Note
198. an Accountant: Combining OED, 1 ('one who renders or is liable to render account') and 3 ('one who professionally makes up or takes charge of accounts; an officer in a public office who has charge of the accounts').
Editor’s Note
205. Evangelical counsel: A principle taught by Christ that is not binding on all (e.g. poverty, chastity), as opposed to the precepts of the Gospel; generally a RC distinction. See e.g. Aquinas, ST, Ia–IIae q. 107; Juan de Maldonado, Commentarii in Quattuor Euangelistas, 2 vols. (Venice, 1606), i, 2B7r (on Matt. 19, which D cites at ll. 208–9); 2I2v (on Matt. 24).
Editor’s Note
208–9. Vade & vende … me: cf. Matt. 19: 21.
Editor’s Note
211. Sequere me … me: cf. Matt. 9: 9.
Editor’s Note
214. fascination: 'the casting of a spell; sorcery, enchantment' (OED, 1). The comparison with 1 Kgs. 19: 19 is proposed by Lyra's postil in VG.
Editor’s Note
217. character: 'a distinctive mark, evidence, or token' (OED 8.a).
Editor’s Note
219. filiation: 'the process of becoming, or the condition of being, a son' (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
220. feasted his friend: cf. 1 Kgs. 20: 21.
Editor’s Note
223–8. S. Matthews … celebrate: See the apocryphal 'Acts and Martyrdom of St Matthew the Apostle', ANF viii. 528–35.
Editor’s Note
228. festum Ablactationis: D translates backwards from AV rather than quoting Vulg., which reads 'fecitque Abraham grande convivium in die ablactationis eius'.
Critical Apparatus
230 uberibus] ed.; uteribus F26, PS
Critical Apparatus
231 Type of a Type] ed., PS; Type of a Tyye F26
Editor’s Note
231–2. that vision … it: cf. Acts 10: 10–16.
Editor’s Note
237. [marg.] cum publicanis: Lat., 'with publicans'.
Editor’s Note
238. High Commission: ecclesiastical court founded by Elizabeth I which gave the Crown power to commission persons to try various offences against the ecclesiastical establishment. D served on it ex officio as Dean of St Paul's (Bald, 416–23). D uses the term figuratively and ironically insinuates that the early modern court was in a line of apostolic succession.
Editor’s Note
249–56. Gregory Nyssene … Gratia: Nyssa, Adversus Eos qui Castigationes ægre Ferunt (PG 46.311C–314D); cf. Beati Gregorii Nysseni … Opera Omnia (Paris, 1605), 2C3v. Cited in Baronius, Annales Ecclesiastici, 37 vols. (Bar-le-Duc, 1864), i. 399.
Editor’s Note
262–4. Gather you … Satan: D loosely paraphrases AV (his phrasing does not appear in any of the English translations).
Editor’s Note
265. If … eat not: D continues to paraphrase.
Editor’s Note
266. [marg.] 2 Thes. 3.6, 14: v. 14 reads 'And if any man obey not our word, by this Epistle note that man, and haue no company with him, that he may be ashamed'.
Editor’s Note
268. Calvin thinks: see Calvin, Commentarii in Omnes D. Pauli Epistolas (Geneva, 1600), Q5v.
Editor’s Note
269. a Jesuite: as D's marginalium notes, Lapide. See Lapide, Commentaria in Sacram Scripturam, ix (Naples, 1858), 572.
Editor’s Note
271. Ignavos: from Lat. ignavus, idle or sluggish.
Editor’s Note
271. Inutiles: from Lat. inutilis, useless or unprofitable.
Editor’s Note
274. every man … Calling: cf. PS iv.5.557–60; x.10.102–5; D, Letters, H1v–H2r; Sermon 6 in this vol.
Editor’s Note
281. Impositions: taxes or duties, especially those imposed on imports and exports through the exercise of royal prerogative. Charles I's right to levy impositions was a matter of controversy in the parliaments of 1625 and 1626.
Critical Apparatus
282 1 Sam. 8.15] ed., PS; 1.17 F26
Editor’s Note
282. Farmers: cf. OED, 'farmer' n.2 1: 'one who undertakes the collection of taxes, revenues, etc., paying a fixed sum for the proceeds'.
Editor’s Note
286–7. Flos Equitum … Reipub.: Cicero, Pro Cnaeo Plancio, 9. 23, in The Speeches, trans. N. H. Watts (1923), 434–5 ('the flower of the Roman knighthood, the ornament of our society and the backbone of our state').
Critical Apparatus
287 Reipub.)] ed.; Reipub. F26; Reipublicæ) PS
Editor’s Note
298. Dispensation: an exemption (OED, 8.b and 9). D explains that while Christ was not bound by the law (since he was its creator), he did not in this case take advantage of that exemption.
Editor’s Note
302. [marg.] Exod. 34.: v. 15.
Editor’s Note
304. [marg.] Num. 5.: v. 2.
Editor’s Note
311–12. Bonus … non potest: Lat., 'he who cannot tolerate evil is not good'. Actually Gregory the Great, XL Homiliarum in Evangelia Libri Duo, Homilia XXXVIII, 7 Habita ad Populum in Basilica Beati Clementis Martyris (on Matt. 22: 1–13) (PL 76. 1286A): 'Nam quisquis malos non tolerat, ipse sibi per intolerantiam suam testis est quia bonus non est' ('For whoever does not tolerate evils is a witness to himself by his intolerance that he is not good').
Editor’s Note
330. [marg.] Calumnia.: Lat., 'calumny'.
Editor’s Note
335. privy whispering: for D's condemnation of 'privy whispering' cf. PS ii.6.231; vii.6 passim.
Editor’s Note
336. Pharisaical: D humorously uses the adjective to describe the Pharisees: 'strict in matters of doctrine and ritual observance but lacking in charity or inner devotion; formalistic; laying great stress on external observance of religious and moral laws, and assuming superiority on that account; legalistic, self-righteous, hypocritical' (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
336–7. a roaring Lyon: cf. 1 Pet. 5: 8.
Editor’s Note
339. [marg.] Matth. 12.: vv. 1–9.
Critical Apparatus
342 them] ed.; him F26, PS
Editor’s Note
343. aliene: alienate; 'to estrange, turn away in feelings or affection, to make averse or hostile, or unwelcome' (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
344–5. the King … other: an acute contemporary reference to talebearers at court and beyond.
Editor’s Note
348–9. Cujus vita … contemnatur: Gregory the Great, XL Homiliarum in Evangelia Libri Duo, 1, Homilia XII, Habita ad Populum in Basilica Sanctae Agnetis, in Die Natalis Ejus (on Matt. 25: 1–13), 1476 (PL 76. 1119A).
Critical Apparatus
349 predicatio] F26; prædicatio PS
consequence made] F261–12, 14–15; consequence made made F2613
Editor’s Note
357–60. There is … it: D slightly contracts his quotation here.
Editor’s Note
364–6. more warmth … sitting: for the ostrich see Gregory the Great, Moralium Libri, sive Expositio in Librum B. Job, 2. 7. 28 (PL 75. 786B). On this apparently widely known myth see Ricciardus Antonius, Commentaria Symbolica, 2 vols. (Venice, 1591), i, 2P3v; Ulisse Aldrovandi, Ornithologiæ (Bologna, 1599), 3D5r. It is mentioned by Montaigne, The Complete Essays, trans. M. A. Screech (Harmondsworth, 1991), 118 ('On the power of the imagination') but, pace Screech, does not appear in Pliny, Historia Naturalis.
Editor’s Note
366–7. that eye … Christ: that is, when Peter wept upon remembering Christ's prophecy that he would deny him three times on the crowing of the cock; Matt. 26: 75; Mark 15: 72; 22: 62.
Critical Apparatus
367 rarified] ed., PS; ratified F26
Editor’s Note
367–8. rarified Matthew … Christ: 'Acts and Martyrdom of St Matthew the Apostle', ANF viii. 532; Matthew is carried up to heaven as he is being martyred. D may also be thinking of Chrysologus, his source below (l. 373), who says of Matthew's response to Christ's call (Matt. 9: 9: 'he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him') that it is 'sic raptus est ad divina' ('as if he were carried off to divine things'): Chrysologus, Sermo XXIX (PL 52. 283B). Note D's elaborate rhetoric here, with a lengthy period divided into balanced clauses by anaphora, or the repetition of the phrases 'if he will look' (and, in the two parentheses, 'and yet, with a look of that eye'), and employment of alliteration in the parallel phrases 'made him flow' and 'made him flee'. The period concludes with a triplet ('redeem … hatch … produce') and further emphatic alliteration in its rhetorical questions ('marvel at the matter … marvel … marvel at the manner … mercy'). This technique intensifies the marvel that D wishes to evoke, and sets Christ's feasting with publicans and sinners in the context of his larger mission to call sinners to repentance, the theme of the sermon.
Editor’s Note
369. redeem … Egypt: Goshen was the part of Egypt in which the Hebrews lived; see Gen. 45: 10; 46: 28; 47: 1, 4, 6. It was spared the plagues of flies and hail (Exod. 8: 22; 9: 26).
Editor’s Note
373. Miraris eum … fudit: Chrysologus, Sermo XXIX (PL 52. 283C), on D's text: 'oblatras cur peccatorum vinum bibat, qui pro peccatoribus suum sanguinem fudit' ('do you rant and rave at why the wine of sinners is being drunk by him who poured his own blood out on behalf of sinners?). Quoted in Sebastião Barradas, Commentaria in Concordiam et Historiam Evangelistarum (Lisbon, 1605), 2O7v; Balthasar Paez, In Epistolam B. Iacobi Apostoli Commentarii (Lyon, 1620), O3r.
Editor’s Note
379–81. as we … them: cf. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 4. 2; 6. 1, in ANF ii. 410; 480.
Editor’s Note
383–4. Christ … sup'd: Rev. 3: 20: 'Behold, I stand at the doore, and knocke: if any man heare my voyce, and open the doore, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.'
Editor’s Note
384–9. his dish … Jesus: this exhortation to charity, and fierce dismissal of pharisaical puritanism, provides Donne with the perfect bridge to the second part of his sermon. He moves from the presence of Christ at St Matthew's feast to a consideration of his errand, announced in the second part of the text, and he does so by merging the historical feast with the 'feast' that is the Eucharist ('Communion', l. 386), which is itself imagined as an invitation to sinners to come to God. The dietary imagery of this passage is heavily loaded, so that we are led from the idea of supping with Christ to supping on him, and finally to growing, in regeneration, in Christ––in his very 'bowels'. Cf. George Herbert, 'Love (III)'.
Critical Apparatus
389 not now] ed., PS; now F26
Editor’s Note
391. Book of Life: in which the names of the righteous are recorded: Phil. 4: 3; Rev. 3: 5; 13: 8; 17: 8; 20: 12; 20: 15; 21: 27; 22: 19.
Editor’s Note
391–2. Mary Magdalen … incontinency: to whom Christ appeared first after his resurrection: John. 20: 15–17. Traditionally thought to have been a prostitute (following Gregory the Great, XL Homiliarum in Evangelia Libri Duo, Homilia XXXIII, 1 (PL 76. 1239C)), hence 'incontinency'.
Editor’s Note
393. St Paul … Christ: referring to Paul's persecution of Christians before his conversion: Acts 8: 1–3; Gal. 1: 13; Phil. 3: 6.
Editor’s Note
394. St. Peter … him: Peter struck off the right ear of the high priest's servant when Christ was arrested: John. 18: 10–11; Matt. 26: 51–2 (Peter is not named in Matthew's account).
Editor’s Note
395–6. delivered … all together: an image taken from the imposition of type on a sheet of paper in the printing of a book or of an engraving from a metal plate, or from the imposition of an image on metal (as in a coin or medal); D uses it elsewhere in all senses. Cf. Sermon 6 in this vol., ll. 524–6; PS ii.9.110–11; ix.10.462–3.
Editor’s Note
404. [marg.] Part II.: note that the two parts of D's sermon are almost exactly equal, each consisting of a little over 4,000 words.
Editor’s Note
408. [marg.] Respondet Calumniae.: Lat., 'He replies to the calumny.'
Critical Apparatus
410 be a calumny] ed., PS; be a calumy F26
Editor’s Note
411. pretermits: neglects or omits (an action, duty, etc.); fails to attend to (OED, 1).
Editor’s Note
411–12. the generation … vipers: for Christ's use of the term 'generation of vipers' to describe the Pharisees see Matt. 12: 34; 23: 33.
Editor’s Note
416–18. the Legend … it: widely known legend used by Protestants in their attacks on the RC Church. See Sermon 1 in this vol., l. 281 and cmt.
Editor’s Note
424. the Pharisees … Scriptures: the Pharisees' knowledge of Scripture was well known; for their strict but hypocritical observance of the letter of the law see Matt. 23. Lyra in VG also notes the Pharisees' learning and Christ's use of reason and Scripture in his response (D reverses the order): 'Respondit eis primo per rationem … Secundo respondet per auctoritatem' ('first he replies to them through reason … secondly, he replies through authority').
Editor’s Note
425–6. Misericordiam volo … sacrifice: cf. Hos. 6: 6 (Vulg.), 'quia misericordiam volui et non sacrificium' ('For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice').
Editor’s Note
426. Evangelical: 'of or pertaining to, or in accordance with, the faith or precepts of the Gospel, or the Christian religion; pertaining to, or characteristic of, the Gospel dispensation' (OED, 1.b); the contrast between the letter of the law and its spirit, and between the Old and New dispensations, is central to D's message of repentance as the path to salvation; cf. 2 Cor. 3: 6.
Editor’s Note
429–30. when they … sabbath: cf. Matt. 12: 7. The allusion to Hosea is indicated in marg. to AV, along with cross-references to each passage from Matthew.
Editor’s Note
432–3. The whole … Physician: cf. Matt. 9: 12.
Editor’s Note
434–5. we read … recovered: see e.g. Matt. 11: 5; 12: 22; 15: 30; 21: 14; John. 11: 43.
Editor’s Note
442. tenour and letter: synonyms for the strict literal sense. Tenor: 'in technical legal use (as in Fr.) implying the actual wording of a document, or a transcript thereof (distinguished from effect)' (OED, I.1.a, n.)
Editor’s Note
442–3. Commission and Instructions: 'authoritative charge or direction to act in a prescribed manner; order, command, instruction' (OED, 'commission' 1.a); issued by an authority (including the crown) to an officer.
Editor’s Note
445. [marg.] Venit actu: Lat., 'he is come in reality'. D also uses this phrase in PS ix.5.451 ff. (?Christmas Day, 1629).
Editor’s Note
447. Tune ille … another: cf. Matt. 11: 3 (Vulg.), 'ait ille tu es qui venturus es an alienum expectamus'. D quotes from AV and translates backwards.
Editor’s Note
448–56. we look … History: here D rejects what he sees as the errors of both the Jews (who deny that Christ was Messiah) and the RCs (who 'joyn' angels and saints to him, or appoint him deputy 'vice-Messias', perhaps popes as well as saints).
Editor’s Note
457. [marg.] Venit sponte.: Lat., 'he came freely'.
Editor’s Note
458. How freely?: D answers the questions of an imaginary interlocutor to create an almost catechistic effect, and thus untangle the distinction between Christ's voluntary coming and the fact that he was indeed sent by the Father and brought by the Holy Spirit.
Editor’s Note
459–60. God so … Son for it: paraphrasing John. 3: 16.
Editor’s Note
462. Holy Ghost … virgin: paraphrasing Luke 1: 35.
Editor’s Note
464. abhorr'd not … womb: from the Te Deum, BCP, Morning Prayer.
Editor’s Note
465. Mittimus: 'a warrant issued by a justice of the peace, etc., committing a person to custody' (OED, 1.b); Lat., literally 'we send'.
Editor’s Note
466. Transeat Calix … me: cf. Matt. 26: 39.
Editor’s Note
468–9. without … the Warrant: emphasizing the paradox that Christ signed his own death warrant; that he was sent, but by himself. Cf. Sermon 14 in this vol.
Editor’s Note
476. [marg.] Vocare: Lat., 'to call'.
Editor’s Note
477. vocatus: Lat., '[he] was called'. In the rest of this paragraph D reiterates his argument that without grace mankind has no ability to call Christ; cf. above, ll. 50–3.
Editor’s Note
479. [marg.] Non occurrere: Lat., 'not to meet'.
Editor’s Note
481–2. Quid peto … me?: Augustine, Confessions, 1. 2 (PL 32. 661): 'why do I request you to come to me when, unless you were within me, I would have no being at all?' D continues to paraphrase this section of the Confessions, which stresses the individual and devotional aspect of his sermon; see Headnote.
Editor’s Note
484–93. Where was … Election: to intensify the sense of his (and mankind's) passivity D constructs a retrospective gradatio of times at which he can be shown not to have had agency in his salvation: at his baptism (ll. 485–6); at the moment of his conception (ll. 487–8); and at the moment when, before his creation, he was deemed elect or reprobate (ll. 491–3). The last is offered as a counter-argument to the possible suggestion that he might have been prepared for grace by the fact that he was born of Christian parents (l. 489).
Editor’s Note
493. any other: alluding to the questions answered on behalf of the child at baptism by its godparents; see BCP, Ministration of Baptism.
Editor’s Note
494. God is… not: cf. Isa. 65: 1.
Editor’s Note
497. [marg.] Non cogere: Lat., 'not to compel'.
Editor’s Note
499–500. There is… Irresistibility: by 'the later School' D refers to what is known as Reformed scholasticism, an attempt to formalize reformed doctrines after Calvin which placed predestination at its centre and tended to emphasize reprobation, limited atonement, and the perseverance of the saints as well as the irresistibility of grace. On the Continent it is associated with Peter Martyr Vermigli (1499–1562), Jerome Zanchi (1516–90), and Theodore Beza (1519–1605); in England with William Whitaker (1547/8–95), William Perkins (1558–1602), and William Ames (1576–1633). The doctrine of irresistible grace was accepted by the Synod of Dort in Articles 3 and 4, Rejection of Errors 8; for the text see Anthony Milton (ed.), The British Delegation and the Synod of Dort (1618–1619) (Woodbridge, 2005), 315. For a very similar passage see PS i.6.121–5.
Editor’s Note
504–5. leave… into practice: as throughout this sermon, D is concerned to avoid controversial points of divinity which might mislead his congregation and instead to emphasize the pastoral reassurance of his scriptural text; here he notes that accepting the doctrine of irresistibility might lead to passivity and prevent repentance.
Editor’s Note
508–9. Press men… Voluntaries: to press = 'to compel (a person) to enlist in the army or navy' (OED, 'press' v.2 1.a). D imagines Christ as a monarch or military leader and the Christian as a volunteer soldier; see 2 Tim. 2: 3 and, for an influential early modern use of the image, Erasmus, Enchiridion Militis Christiani (The Handbook of a Christian Soldier, 1503). D's own past as a military volunteer 1596 and 1597 is perhaps worth recalling.
Editor’s Note
509. Compelle intrare: Vulg: 'compel them to come in'; the parable of the great supper.
Editor’s Note
511. commission: 'in the old system of raising forces, a warrant which authorized the holder to raise, equip, and command a body of soldiers in the name of the issuing authority' (OED, 3.b (a)).
Editor’s Note
511. ordinary: 'belonging to the regular or usual order or course of things; having a place in a fixed or regulated sequence; occurring in the course of regular custom or practice; normal; customary; usual' (OED, 2.a).
Editor’s Note
511–12. Ite, prædicate… Gospel: cf. Mark 16: 15. A favourite quotation for D, underlining his emphasis on the importance of preaching; cf. PS iv.7.549; iv.14.224–5; v.13.47, 351; vii.4.614–5; viii.13.614–15.
Editor’s Note
513–14. Draw… the Rack: describing preparations for torture.
Editor’s Note
520. pecuniary… bloudy Laws: that is, laws bearing a financial penalty or the threat of execution. In P–M D praises James for having 'cast in a dead sleepe all bloudy lawes, and in a slumber all pecuniary lawes which might offend, & aggrieve [RCs]' (p. 157). The recusancy laws were a subject of heated debate in the parliaments of 1625 and 1626, with many in the House of Commons fearing rightly that Charles had made promises to the French to relax them in order to secure his marriage to Henrietta Maria (on 1 May 1625, the day that the marriage was celebrated by proxy, Charles instructed Lord Keeper Williams that the recusancy laws should be 'stayed and forborne'); by 1626 Buckingham was being depicted as a patron of recusants. In the rest of this paragraph D thus offers support to Charles's policy of pragmatic toleration while allowing considerable space for anti-popish feeling by calling for punishment in cases where temporal and spiritual allegiance are both compromised (as, indeed, Charles had done in his instructions to Williams, stating that RCs must 'yield us that obedience which good and true subjects owe unto their King'; quoted in Gardiner, v. 326). His argument mirrors part of that in P–M.
Editor’s Note
522. Compellite Manere: Lat., 'compel them to remain'.
Editor’s Note
524. complicated: intertwined, united, or combined intimately (OED 2).
Editor’s Note
526. Apostacy: abandonment or renunciation of one's religious faith or moral allegiance (OED).
Editor’s Note
535. [marg.] Veni vocare.: Lat., 'come to call'.
Editor’s Note
536–7. not by… private interpretation: D consistently elevates public interpretation of Scripture in sermons over private interpretation; cf. PS iii.9.145–51; iv.7.480–1; iv.8.300–9; vi.10.433–8; vii.12.720–8.
Editor’s Note
538. Ordinance: 'a practice or usage authoritatively enjoined or prescribed; esp. a religious or ceremonial observance' (OED, 4.a); preaching is prescribed in, e.g., Mark 16: 15, quoted above, ll. 511–12. Cf. Sermon 3 in this vol., l. 541.
Editor’s Note
538. Great Seal: 'the seal… used for the authentication of documents of the highest importance issued in the name of the sovereign' (OED, 'seal' n.2 4.a). Cf. Sermon 3 in this vol., l. 558.
Editor’s Note
541. infancy: literally, unable to speak (Lat. infans).
Editor’s Note
544–5. if… loosing Christ: D touches here on a matter of current controversy: the Dean of the Chapel Royal, Lancelot Andrewes, was famously critical of the overvaluation of preaching, and when Laud succeeded him in Sept. 1626 he elevated the liturgy over the sermon in services there. D here also recalls his reference to Luke 2: 42 (above, l. 29). Cf. D's sermon on the 'Directions to Preachers' of 1622 (PS iv.7) and see further Headnote.
Editor’s Note
547–8. Non nascimur… Christiani: Lat., 'we are not born, but are reborn as Christians'. A common idea in Augustine's works. The closest expression of it to D's phrasing is Augustine, Epistola CXC, 1. 3 (PL 33. 858): 'neque enim in Christum credimus ut nascamur, sed ut renascamur' ('for we do not believe in Christ in order to be born but in order to be reborn'). Cf. Jerome, Contra Vigilantium, 7 (PL 23. 346A). See also Sermon 9 in this vol., l. 550.
Editor’s Note
548–9. regeneration: 'the process or fact of being spiritually reborn; the state resulting from this' (OED, 2.a).
Editor’s Note
550. Venite Benedicti… joy: cf. Matt. 25: 34: 'Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.'
Editor’s Note
551. Inchoation: 'beginning, commencement; origination; initial or early stage' (OED). Christ's call to repentance in this life is a step on the way to, and a type of, his call to enter the kingdom of heaven at the Last Judgement.
Editor’s Note
555. [marg.] Non Justos.: Lat., 'not the righteous'.
Critical Apparatus
557 Nyssene,] F26; ~? PS
Editor’s Note
557–9. Grego: Nyssene… Angels: Actually Gregory the Great, Moralium Libri, sive Expositio in Librum B. Job, 4. 18. 43 (PL 76. 80A): 'Quia vero haec Dei sapientia manens cum Patre ante saecula incarnanda erat in fine saeculorum, ut ad redimendum genus humanum non sanctos angelos, non justos homines mitteret… ' ('but because this wisdom of God, abiding with the Father before time, was to be made incarnate at the end of time, so that in order to redeem the human race it should send not the holy angels, not just men… ').
Editor’s Note
562–3. both good… Jesuites: a very feeble joke, in tune with D's sometimes patronizing tone in this sermon.
Editor’s Note
564–5. how Kings… massacred: Jesuits such as Suárez and Bellarmine defended the papal deposing power, exercised in 1570 by Pius V in his bull Regnans in excelsis, which purported to depose Elizabeth I. In 1610 Henri IV of France was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic, François Ravaillac, who was believed to have been encouraged by Jesuits.
Editor’s Note
565. how Kingdoms… Dispensations: papal dispensations grant exemptions from canon law; Julius II issued a dispensation to allow Henry VIII to marry Catherine of Aragon, widow of his brother Arthur, Prince of Wales.
Editor’s Note
567–75. Maldonat… sinners too: Maldonado, Commentarii in Quatuor Euangelistas, i, N4r. Cf. Z7r–v (on Matt. 18: 12) and see ll. 634–5 cmt.
Editor’s Note
575–7. Barradas… have come: Sebastião Barradas, Commentariorum in Concordiam et Historiam Quatuor Euangelistarum, ii (Mainz, 1609), 2F3v. See further l. 578 cmt.
Editor’s Note
575–6. not altogether Barrabas: the prisoner released by Pilate instead of Christ, at the instigation of the priests and elders; see Matt. 27: 16–21; Mark 15: 7–15; Luke 23: 18–19; John. 18: 40. Another feeble joke on D's part.
Editor’s Note
578. Si homo… venisset: Augustine, Sermo CLXIII, 12 (PL 38. 895); Sermo CLXXIV, 2 (PL 38. 940); cited in marg. of Barradas, Commentariorum in Concordiam et Historiam Quatuor Euangelistarum, ii, 2F3v (see ll. 575–7 cmt). Cf. D, Devotions, 52–3.
Editor’s Note
594. No man… righteousness: D leans towards an implied questioning of the Calvinist doctrine of the perseverance of the saints, but avoids articulating it explicitly by emphasizing that righteousness does not belong to a person, but to Christ, whose gift it is.
Editor’s Note
598. Erant quibus… veniret: cf. Hilary, In Evangelium Matthaei Commentarius, 9 (PL 9. 962D).
Editor’s Note
600–1. we answer… Fathers: patristic opinion on this passage is summarized in the Catena Aurea in these terms.
Editor’s Note
604–5. They were… naked: Rev. 3: 17; D rephrases in order grammatically to incorporate this quotation.
Editor’s Note
605–7. being ignorant… God: AV; D rephrases slightly.
Editor’s Note
612. this Pelagian righteousness: Pelagianism was a 5th-c. heresy which denied that original sin infected the human will, and claimed that mankind was capable of attaining grace through the exercise of that will. Named after Pelagius (c.354–c.420/440), it was violently opposed by St Augustine. D and his contemporaries use 'Pelagian' as a shorthand for any theology that in their eyes overvalues the freedom of the human will; it was regularly used as a term of abuse for those otherwise described as Arminians.
Editor’s Note
613–17. Cathari… our trespasses: From Gr. καθαροί‎ (catharoi), 'pure ones'. Also known as Novatianists, who were followers of Novatian, a Roman priest who in 251 opposed the election of Pope Cornelius and became anti-pope. Novatian refused absolution to idolaters; his followers extended this to all mortal sins; a similar position was taken by the Donatists. Works were written against them by St Cyprian, St Ambrose (De Paenitentia), ps.-Augustine (Contra Novatianum), Epiphanius, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostom, and Eulogius of Alexandria. Augustine mentions them in De Haeresibus, 38 (PL 42. 32). Aquinas discusses their doctrines in Liber contra Impugnantes Dei Cultum et Religionem, pars 2, cap. 5, co. He notes their omission of the clause from the Lord's Prayer in Super Evangelium S. Matthaei Lectura, cap. 6, v. 12 and Expositio in Orationem Dominicam, art. 5. Cf. PS i.3.125–225; v.3.328; vii.10.252–5; vii. 13.320–30. Not to be confused with the Cathars or Albigensians of the 11th–13th cc, from whom D distinguishes them in several of the above references.
Editor’s Note
620. not all effectually: Having discussed those who are intended by 'the righteous' (those who think themselves to be so), D moves on to define 'sinners' as those who acknowledge themselves to be so; this tempers what might otherwise seem close to a universalist position on the extent of Christ's atonement, such as is developed in Sermon 3 in this vol.
Editor’s Note
623. [marg.] Peccatores: Lat., 'sinners'.
Editor’s Note
628–33. that vain… Nature: this idea is attacked by Calvin, Institutes, 2. 12. 6, where his target is Andreas Osiander (1498–1552), German Lutheran theologian and author of De Lege et Evangelio and De Justification (1550). D's reference to this as a notion of the 'later School' (see ll. 499–500 cmt) is a little misleading, as it had been considered by Aquinas, ST, IIIa q. 1 a. 3; Super Sent., lib. 3 d. 1 q. 1 a. 3 (who saw merits in both positions).
Editor’s Note
634–5. Maldonat… makes it: Maldonado, Commentarii in Quatuor Euangelistas, i, N4r.
Editor’s Note
636–7. He says… it: Maldonado, Commentarii in Quatuor Euangelistas, i, Z 7 v. The Catholics who subscribed to this view included Bellarmine, De Christo, 5. 10, in De Controversiis Christianae Fidei, i (Naples, 1856), 298.
Editor’s Note
640–1. good Expositors: including those in VG; Jerome, Commentarium in Evangelium Matthaei, 3 (PL 26. 156A).
Editor’s Note
643–4. to which… other: a suggestion that might have resonated with members of Charles's household; see further Headnote.
Editor’s Note
649–50. this Quorum: D plays on the term's technical sense ('distinguished or essential members of any body; a select company', OED, 2) and its literal use by Paul (Latin 'of whom'); see next cmt.
Editor’s Note
650. Quorum Ego Maximus: cf. 1 Tim. 1: 15 (Vulg.), 'quorum primus ego sum' ('Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief').
Editor’s Note
651. that Election: D plays on the word's political and theological senses.
Editor’s Note
652–3. Two in… left: cf. Matt. 24: 40; the following example (ll. 657–8) is from Matt. 24: 41.
Editor’s Note
656. supplanted… Court: an acute local reference which renders jostling for position at court effectively equivalent to murder, highway robbery, or financial exploitation.
Editor’s Note
664. primum peccator… Confessor: D continues his process of redefinition: having revealed that 'righteous' must be understood in a specific way, he now explains that it is an acknowledgement of one's sins, not the sins themselves, that leads to Christ's call.
Editor’s Note
667. [marg.] Non ad satisfactionem: Lat., 'not to satisfaction'.
Editor’s Note
668. to make satisfaction: satisfaction is 'the atonement made by Christ for sin, according to the view that His sufferings and merits are accepted by the Divine justice as an equivalent for the penalty due for the sins of the world' (OED, 3). In this final section of the sermon D closely follows Calvin's discussion of repentance and confession, Institutes, 1. 4, 1. 5 (though he differs with him on the value of public confession; see below, ll. 717–18). The scholastic definition of repentance divided it into contrition, confession, and satisfaction: this is attacked by Calvin, Institutes, 1. 4. 1 ff.; 3. 4. Satisfaction as an essential part of penance was defended at the Council of Trent, Session 14, Chapter 8, 'de Satisfactionis necessitate et fructu'. See further Headnote.
Editor’s Note
669. impossible account: reiterating the emphasis on mankind's inability to participate significantly in the process of salvation; a characteristically Protestant position on the impossibility of fulfilling the Law without God's grace. Cf. D, 'Spit in my face'.
Editor’s Note
671–5. what… satisfaction?: attacking RC doctrines which suggested that an individual could be aided in their progression to glory by their own suffering (in purgatory) or by the actions of others (in prayers for the dead).
Critical Apparatus
682 Job 9.3] ed., PS; Job 9.9. F26
Editor’s Note
682–3. If he… thousand: D slightly rephrases AV.
Editor’s Note
685. [marg.] Non ad Gloriam.: Lat., 'not to glory'
Editor’s Note
685. not… gloriam neither: again D balances passivity and activity: mankind is dependent upon Christ for salvation, and yet must play some part in it (through repentance). D goes on to develop this pastoral notion: election is an eternal decree of God, but it is 'executed' 'by steps' so that a passive submission to one's supposed state is not acceptable to Him.
Editor’s Note
690. Farmers: RCs are described as publicans or tax collectors (cf. above, l. 282 cmt), the taxes being indulgences supposed to reduce one's term in purgatory––a major target of the ire of early Reformers such as Luther.
Editor’s Note
691–2. have… S. Mark: Vulg. ends this verse with 'peccatores' in Matt. 9: 13 and Mark 2: 17.
Editor’s Note
695–6. Are ye… is: D's tone here is somewhat patronizing, but his message fits the pastoral aims of the sermon.
Editor’s Note
699. Aversio, and Conversio: Lat., 'turning from'; 'turning to'. D follows Calvin's definition of repentance: 'the term repentance is derived in the Hebrew from conversion, or turning again; and in the Greek from a change of mind or purpose… it is substantially this, that withdrawing from ourselves we turn to God' (Institutes, 3. 3. 5). Cf. PS iv.8.709–35; ix.13 passim.
Editor’s Note
703. in… at sea: see Mark 4: 37; Luke 8: 23–4.
Editor’s Note
706–7. Nathaniel's mark… deceit: cf. John. 1: 47. D translates back from Vulg.; AV and Geneva have 'guile' for 'deceit'.
Editor’s Note
713. here: Christ's 'own house' is the church.
Editor’s Note
714. in Court: the identification between publicans and courtiers is finally made explicit: D turns directly to his congregation (on the composition of the Household, see Headnote and Introduction).
Editor’s Note
715. our adversaries: the Pharisees are directly identified with RCs.
Editor’s Note
716–17. confession… contrition… satisfaction: The three parts of repentance in the scholastic (and RC) scheme; see above, l. 668 cmt. In his response to these calumnies D sounds very close to some comments in Richard Montagu, A Gagg for the New Gospell? No: a new gagg for an old goose (1624), STC 18038, M2v; N1r.
Editor’s Note
718. we require… Congregation: general confession is required by BCP at Morning and Evening Prayer and at Holy Communion.
Editor’s Note
718–20. in time… oppressed: BCP, Order for the Visitation of the Sick states 'Here shall the sicke persone make a speciall confession, if he feele hys conscience troubled with any weighty matter.'
Editor’s Note
720–5. And if… soul: BCP allows the following words to be said at Communion: 'And because it is requisite that no manne shoulde come to the holye Communion, but with a ful trust in goddes mercy, and with a quiet conscience: therfore yf there be any of you, which by the meanes aforesaid cannot quiet his owne conscience, but requireth further comforte or counsail, then let him come to me, or some other discrete and learned minister of gods word, and open his griefe, that he may receive suche ghostly counseil, advise, and comfort, as his conscience may be releved, and that by the ministery of Gods word, he may receyve comfort, and the benefyte of absolution, to the quieting of his conscience, and advoiding of all scruple and doubtfulnes.'
Editor’s Note
728. Attrition: 'an imperfect sorrow for sin, as if a bruising which does not amount to utter crushing (contrition)' (OED, 4).
Editor’s Note
730. sober and modest: avoiding an explicit statement of hypothetical universalism, D counsels a pastorally inspired sense of confidence that Christ's atonement is effectual for each individual that is consonant with the public orthodoxy of the English Church. Cf. Article 2 of the Thirty-Nine Articles.
Editor’s Note
740–2. Which Repentance… God: D conceives repentance as an act that is both repetitive and singular, underlining this by his triplicate use of the prefix 'ever'.
Editor’s Note
742. super-induction: bringing '(the child of another wife) into the inheritance in preference to the former heir' (OED, 1.a); cf. Sermon 3 in this vol., l. 210. D's metaphors carry a sense of the mystery of salvation through the articulation of a complicated family structure: the individual was married to sin, but is now divorced from it; he has married God, and has adopted Christ as his heir, though he is properly speaking the heir who will inherit the kingdom of God through Christ's testament.
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