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Editor’s Note64

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Editor’s Note
The Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, to give the poem its usual modern title, represents Catullus' own experiment in the form which he admired in the Zmyrna of his friend Cinna (see on 95); it is a narrative poem in the 'new' style, strongly influenced by Alexandrian technique. That it is a translation of a Greek original, like poem 66, there is no reason to suppose. Two lines can be related to lines by Alexandrian poets which happen to have been preserved in isolation—one, probably by Euphorion, may have suggested l. 30; the other, perhaps by Callimachus, clearly lies behind l. 111; l. 102 looks like a reminiscence of Apollonius, and the resemblances to Nonnus in 139 ff. and 160 ff. suggest that Catullus had in mind the same Alexandrian source on which Nonnus was drawing about four centuries later. He certainly was not confined to one hellenistic source.
  The narrative poem which the Alexandrians developed in their reaction against the more spacious forms of poetry1 is distinguished from epic not only by its smaller scale, achieved by deliberate selection of episodes, but also by the subjective, sentimental, and romantic handling of its theme. The poet passes rapidly over the familiar incidents of his story, or omits them altogether, to enlarge on those parts of it which lend themselves to colourful description of detail or the portrayal of human emotion; he relieves his narrative with personal turns of phrase—exclamations, apostrophes, or questions—and courts the interest of the cultivated reader by giving a novel twist to his story or embellishing it with conceits of language. Little has survived of the large volume of narrative poetry which Alexandria produced. Callimachus' Hecale (a hexameter poem on an episode in the story of Theseus) and his Aitia (a series of elegiac poems on the legendary origins of local rites) are represented by fragments, few of them of any considerable length; of the work of Euphorion and others we have even less. The only examples of this kind of narrative poetry which have survived entire are three poems in the Theocritean corpus, Hylas (13), The Infant Heracles (24), and Heracles the Lion-killer (25), the first two of which are certainly by Theocritus himself, and the Europa (Id. 2) of Moschus. The Italian neoterici brought the style into Latin; besides Cinna's Zmyrna, we know of an Io by Calvus and a Glaucus by Cornificius. There are examples of the same technique in the pseudo-Virgilian Ciris, in the Aristaeus episode of Virgil's fourth Georgic (315–558), and in Ovid's Metamorphoses, a series of ingeniously connected narratives, and the essentials of the same pattern appear in some of the narrative elegies of Propertius (especially i. 20, iv. 5).
  Catullus' poem contains a story within a story. More than half (ll. 50–267) is occupied by the tale of the desertion of Ariadne; the pretext for its introduction is a description of the scene embroidered on the bridal couch of Peleus and Thetis. Similarly in Callimachus' Hecale the tale of Erichthonius seems to have been woven into the adventure of Theseus which was the theme of the poem, and in the fourth Georgic the tale of Orpheus and Eurydice is inserted into the story of Aristaeus. The particular form of digression which Catullus employs, the detailed description of a work of art, goes back to Homer's description of the shield of Achilles (Il. xviii. 478 ff.) and was favoured by Hellenistic poets;1 so Apollonius describes at length the embroidery on Jason's mantle (i. 721–67), Theocritus the carving on his goat-herd's bowl (1. 29–55), Moschus the design on Europa's golden flower-basket (2. 44–61). In Catullus the disproportion is very much more marked. The description of the coverlet serves to introduce a long narrative which has no obvious connexion with the original theme, and that narrative in turn contains a further digression (76–115), a recapitulation of the story of Theseus' visit to Crete. Returning to the marriage-scene, Catullus makes the song of the Parcae a means of extending his narrative into the future with a prediction of the doings of Achilles (338–70), and the song itself leads on to yet another digression, the moralizing epilogue on human degeneracy (384–408) with which the poem abruptly ends.
  The word 'digression' is misleading in so far as it suggests casual composition. Catullus' 'digression' is deliberate, a part of the structure of the poem. Why he chose to construct it as he did we cannot profess to know. It has been argued that the Peleus and Thetis narrative is a frame for the story of Ariadne which is Catullus' main concern, that a connexion between the two stories is to be found in the contrast between happy marriage and unhappy love, that the key to the poem is the moral reflection of the topical epilogue, in relation to which the choice of stories portraying the union of god and man has a symbolic significance. The last of these views gives a plausible account of the genesis of the poem, taken, as we have to take it, in isolation; whether that was the pattern that Catullus intended we cannot say without a fuller knowledge of its hellenistic background.
  Both in the handling of his story and in his language Catullus shows some of the characteristic features of Alexandrian technique. He selects what gives an opening for realistic description or for the sentimental analysis of emotion. Peleus falls in love with Thetis when he is in the Argo, outward bound for the end of the world, and she is among her Nereid sisters; there is a gap between that romantic encounter and a wedding in Thessaly, described in a series of pictures full of colour and movement, of the palace, of the streaming crowds of sightseers, of the guests—Chiron with a present of flowers, Peneus with greenery, and the Fates, weird figures in white and red, biting the threads of their wool between their aged lips. Within the digression, the familiar story of the thread that guided Theseus to safety is only glanced at in passing, and there is room for other pictures—of Ariadne on the shore, of Bacchus' outlandish following; the thoughts of the forsaken Ariadne are pursued for some seventy lines and Aegeus' parting from his son for twenty-five. And Catullus writes for a sophisticated reader who is equipped to seize on hints and expand allusions. Jupiter's renunciation of Thetis receives a brief mention (27) and Prometheus appears as a wedding-guest (294); but nothing is said of the reason for Jupiter's change of mind or of the part which Prometheus played in it. The reader's attention is caught by a reference to Apollo's absence from the wedding (299); that variation of the story, which occurs in no other version of it that we have, is stressed by way of challenge to the common account; what lies behind his absence the reader must explain for himself.
  As for form, Catullus takes from Alexandria the enlivening devices of exclamation (22, 71, 94), apostrophe (69, 299), and interjected question (28, 116), the learned allusion (228 sancti incola Itoni, 290 sorore flammati Phaethontis, 324 Opis nato), the romantic, evocative use of the proper name (89 Eurotae, 105 Tauro), and the tricks of emphasis and arrangement which the Alexandrians exploited for their emotional value, anaphora (24 uos … uos, 19–21 tum … tum … tum, 39–41, 63–65, 69–70, 96, 136–48, 186–7, 328–9, 387–94) and epanalepsis (26–27 Iuppiter ipse, / ipse …, 61–62 prospicit, eheu, / prospicit, 132–3 perfide ab aris, / perfide, 259–60 orgia cistis, / orgia, 285–6 uiridantia Tempe, / Tempe …). The characteristic Alexandrian metrical mannerism of the spondaic hexameter is repeated thirty times, at one point (78–80) in three consecutive lines. But these Alexandrian artifices are imposed on the traditional style of the Latin hexameter as it had come down from Ennius, and the slow, ponderous, and sometimes awkward dignity of what had been an adventurous experiment in Ennius' day but was now two centuries old contrasts sharply with the preciosity and bravura of the new technique. The traditional epic vocabulary, with nouns like pubes (4), uada (6), flamen (9), tempestas (73), templa (75), pelagus (127), and compounds like fluentisonus (52), clarisonus (125) and raucisonus (263), amplifice (265) and iustificus (406), is blended with Greek borrowings like gaza (46), calathiscus (319), and chorea (287) and uncompromising Greek forms like Phasidos (3), Pelea (21), and Minoidi (247). To the same 'Ennian' tradition belong the long rambling periods (e.g. 1–10, 60–67), the prosaic connexions (some of them common in Lucretius: 56 utpote quae, 198 quae quoniam, 218 quandoquidem, 278 quorum post abitum), the loosely attached participial phrases (5–10 optantes … uerrentes … coniungens: cf. 54, 63, 101, 203, 238), the alliterations1 (a native ornament of style in Italy), the end-stopped lines and the absence of internal pauses.2 In two respects Catullus develops purely Latin devices, which owed nothing directly to Greek precedent and which were to become an accepted part of the technique of hexameter verse. The first is the 'bracketed' structure in which a line is enclosed between a noun and its adjective (27 lines are of this pattern: e.g. 54 indomitos … furores, 125 clarisonas … uoces, 265 talibus … figuris). The second is the parallel or chiastic arrangement of two nouns and their adjectives within the line; 58 lines (that is, one line in seven) show one or other of the possible forms of such arrangement:3 e.g. 7 caerula uerrentes abiegnis aequora palmis, 39 non humilis curuis purgatur uinea rastris, 42 squalida desertis rubigo infertur aratris, 46 tota domus gaudet regali splendida gaza.1
  The coincidences of language between this poem and Lucretius cannot be taken to prove that either poet was borrowing from the other, and there is no need to inquire whether Catullus could have known Lucretius' work, the posthumous publication of which was not before 54 b.c., probably the year of Catullus' own death: such phrases as luce refulgent (275), pectore ab imo (198), uasta Carybdis (156) come from a common poetic stock. (For other examples see 209, 261–4.) With Virgil the case is very different; clearly this poem of Catullus was in his mind and, whether in deliberate borrowing or in unconscious reminiscence, he freely uses its phrases.2
  [For discussions of poem 64 see R. Reitzenstein in Hermes, xxxv (1900), 73 ff.; G. Pasquali in Stud. It. di Fil. Class. i (1920), i ff.; D. Comparetti in Atene e Roma i (1920), 14 ff.; G. Ramain in Rev. de Ph. xlvi (1922), 135 ff.; A. Morpurgo in Riv. di Fil. lv (1927), 331 ff.; G. Perrotta in Athenaeum ix (1931), 400 f.; C. Murley in Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. lxviii (1937), 305 ff.; R. Waltz in Rev. des Ét. Lat. xxiii (1945), 92 ff.; J. P. Boucher in Rev. des Ét. Lat. xxxiv (1956), 190 ff.; F. Klingner, Catulls Peleus-Epos, Sitzungsb. Bayer. Akad. d. Wiss., 1956.]*
1 f. quondam … dicuntur : quondam, like olim in 76, sets the scene in the romantic legendary past; dicuntur emphasizes at the outset the traditional source of the story. So fertur (19), perhibent (76, 124), ferunt (212): the Alexandrian scholar-poet stresses his dependence on tradition, though the tradition he follows may be an unusual one: cf. Call. fr. 612 Pf. ἀμάρτυρον οὐδὲν ἀείδω‎, Hymn 5. 56 μῦθος δ‎ʼ οὐκ ἐμός, ἀλλ‎ʼ ἑτέρων‎. On this literary convention, which Virgil and Propertius maintain, see Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 123.
  
prognatae : an old-fashioned, stately word which appears in the epitaphs of the Scipios (C.I.L. i2. 7 'Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus Gnaiuod patre prognatus') and in Ennius, and which Plautus uses in formal or solemn contexts (e.g. Amph. 365, Capt. 170); it survived (like our 'issue') in legal language.
2. liquidas : cf. 162: a stock epithet of the epic style (cf. Virg. Aen. v. 859 'liquidas proiecit in undas').
  
nasse : cf. 4. 3 natantis trabis, and for a similar use of the voyagers themselves 66. 46.
3. Phasidos ad fluctus : 'to the waters of Phasis', the river of Colchis which flowed from a source in the Caucasus into the Black Sea, 'and the lands of Aeetes', the king of Colchis in whose lands the golden fleece was to be found.
  
Phasidos : in earlier Latin verse Greek names are normally given Latin inflexions; such exceptions as Hectora in Ennius are few. Catullus uses Greek terminations freely. In this poem he has: 1st decl.—acc. sing. Amphitriten (11); 2nd decl.—nom. sing. Scyros (? Cieros) (35), Penios (285); 3rd decl.—acc. sing. Pelea (21, 301), Thesea (53, 239), Minoa (85); voc. sing. Peleu (26), Theseu (69, 133); gen. sing. Phasidos (3) [but Latin Thetidis (19, 302)]; dat. sing. Minoidĭ (247) [but Latin Thetidī (21, 336)], Pelei (382) [but Peleo (336)]; nom. plur. Nereides (15), Eumenides (193) [so heroes (23)]; acc. plur. Thyiadas (391). [To these forms a Greek dative plural may fall to be added in 287.] Elsewhere he has Cycladas (4. 7), Arabas (11. 5), Acmen (45. 21), Cybeles and Cybebes (63. 12, 20, 35, 68), Attin (63. 88), Athon (66. 46), Locridos Arsinoes (66. 54), Callisto (dat., 66. 66), Booten (66. 67), Tethyi (66. 70), Hydrochoi (dat.?, 66. 94) and (almost certainly) Chalybon (gen. plur., 66. 48). For the genitive of names ending in -eus he uses only the Latin termination: Thesei (120), Erechthei (229), Pelei (278), -ei becoming one syllable by synizesis.*
  
fines : the plural is masculine here and in 66. 12: the singular is feminine in 217. The same variation is found with cinis: masculine plural at 68. 98, feminine singular at 68. 90.
  
Aeeteos : hexameters with a spondee in the fifth foot (σπονδειάζοντες‎) are not infrequent in Homer: the Alexandrians, always ready to cultivate the novel and the unobvious, took up this rhythm and made a mannerism of it (in Callimachus one in every eleven hexameters is a σπονδειάζων‎, in Aratus one in every six) and their Italian followers took over the affectation. Writing to Atticus about his voyage to Greece (Att. vii. 2. 1), Cicero writes 'flauit ab Epiro lenissimus Onchesmites' (a wind) and adds 'You can pass that off as your own and see what one of the modern poets will give you for it' (hunc σπονδειάζοντα‎ si cui uoles τῶν νεωτέρων‎ pro tuo uendito'). In this poem Catullus has 30 σπονδειάζοντες‎; he admits the σπονδειάζων‎ in elegiacs also (as Callimachus does not) and has four in each of poems 66 and 68 and one in each of 65, 76, 100, and 116. In eleven lines the spondaic ending consists of a Greek proper name and the rhythm is clearly being cultivated for its own sake, but there are others (as there are in the Alexandrians) in which it seems to be used to echo the sense in sound: so in 15 it may convey the gaze of wonder, in 91 the lingering look of love, in 98 its sighs, in 67 and 274 the continuous movement of the waves, in 277 the slow dispersal of the crowd, in 297 the lingering torture of Prometheus: for other examples see 78, 269, 286. Virgil continues the use of the spondaic ending, usually as an echo of Greek rhythm (e.g. Aen. iii. 74 'Nereidum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo'), sometimes with an obvious adaptation of sound to sense (e.g. Georg. iii. 276 'saxa per et scopulos et depressas conualles'), but is much more sparing with it: in over 12,000 hexameters he has 33 σπονδειάζοντες‎, little more than Catullus has in the 408 lines of this poem. In a σπονδειάζων‎ the fourth foot is normally a dactyl; Catullus has a spondee only in this line and in 1. 44.
  
On the orthography of the adjective see on 68. 109.
4. lecti iuuenes, Argiuae robora pubis : cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 518 'robora pubis lecta'. For the archaic pubes ('man-power') cf. 267 'Thessala pubes', 68. 101. The phrase represents the λεκτοὶ ἡρώων‎ and φέριστον ἡρώων‎ of Apollonius.
5 ff. optantes … uerrentes : Catullus uses this prosaic participial construction again and again in this poem (cf. 54, 63, 72, 101: there are 32 examples in the narrative of 11. 1–131): Virgil prefers paratactic structure with finite verbs. (See Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 380.)
5. auertere is used especially of carrying off spoil: cf. Virg. Aen. i. 472 'auertit equos in castra', viii. 208 'quattuor a stabulis tauros auertit', Caes. B.C. iii. 59. 4 'praedam omnem domum auertebant'.
6. uada salsa : another epic phrase which Virgil repeats, Aen. v. 158 'sulcant uada salsa carina'.
  
decurrere : cf. Virg. Aen. v. 212 'prona petit maria et pelago decurrit aperto', and, for the accusative, Aen. iii. 191 'uastumque caua trabe currimus aequor'.
7. uerrentes : cf. Enn. Ann. 384 V. 'uerrunt extemplo placidum mare marmore flauo', Virg. Aen. vi. 320 'remis uada liuida uerrunt', iii. 208 'torquent spumas et caerula uerrunt'.
  
abiegnis … palmis : cf. 4. 4 palmula.
8. quibus refers back to iuuenes (4).
  
diua … retinens … arces : i.e. Athena in her function of πολιοῦχος‎ or πολιάς‎, worshipped on the acropolis of Athens. For retinens 'occupying' cf. Lucr. iv. 412 'terrarum milia multa / quae uariae retinent gentes'.
9. ipsa : Catullus makes no reference to Argus, the shipwright who built the Argo under Athena's guidance (Apoll. i. 18–19, 111–12).
  
currum : the word is applied to a ship only here, but ὄχος‎ and ὄχημα‎ are so used in Greek (Aesch. Supp. 33 ὄχῳ ταχυήρει‎, Soph. Tr. 656 πολύκωπον ὄχημα ναός‎).
10. texta carinae : 'fitting the pine timbers to the curved keel': the transference of texo from weaving to carpentry (in which ribs and crossbeams correspond to the criss-crossing warp and weft) is old and regular: Enn. trag. 66 V. 'mari magno classis cita texitur' (and, of a shipyard, Ann. 477 V. 'campus habet textrinum nauibus longis'), Virg. Aen. xi. 326 'Italo texamus robore nauis', Ov. Tr. i. 4. 9 'pinea texta sonant pulsu', Fasti i. 506 'pinea … ter pede texta ferit' (of deck planks): so of the wooden horse, Virg. Aen. ii. 112 'trabibus contextus acernis', 186 'roboribus textis'.
11. prima … Amphitriten : 'it was Argo which first handselled the untried Amphitrite with sailing', i.e. introduced the sea to the new experience of being sailed over: for the sense cf. Ov. Am. ii. 11. 1 'prima malas docuit, mirantibus aequoris undis, / Peliaco pinus uertice caesa uias': for imbuit cf. 4. 17, Val. Fl. i. 69 'ignaras Cereris qui uomere terras / imbuit'. primam … Amphitritem of GR gives no sense: Baehrens, reading proram … Amphitrite, translates 'she (Athena) first handselled with sea water (Amphitrite) Argo's prow untried in voyaging', but rudem cursu is an unparalleled phrase and the innocence of the sea is more in point than the inexperience of the ship.
  
Amphitrite : the use of the name of this Nereid, wife of Poseidon, by metonymy for the sea appears first here: no doubt Catullus found it in hellenistic poetry.
12. uentosum … aequor : cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 335 'uentosa per aequora uectos', Georg. 1. 206.
  
proscidit : 'first ploughed the windy seas': proscindere is a technical form for a first ploughing (Varro, R.R. i. 29. 2 'terram cum primum arant, proscindere appellant', Lucr. v. 209, Virg. Georg. i. 97).
13. torta : 'the water churned by the oars grew white with foam': cf. Virg. Aen. iii. 207 'nautae / adnixi torquent spumas'.
  
incanuit : most editors accept the Aldine's correction for incanduit, believing that Catullus would not have written candenti immediately after incanduit. Both canesco (cf. 18 gurgite cano, Homer's πολίη ἄλς‎) and candeo, candesco can be used in this context: Lucretius has both in ii. 766 'ut mare, cum magni commorunt aequora uenti, / uertitur in canos candenti marmore fluctus'.
14. freti : Schrader's necessary correction of V's feri: even if the apposition Nereides, feri uultus, were possible, the adjective is clearly unsuitable, emersere is transitive, governing uultus, 'lifted their faces' (cf. Dirae 56 'monstra … emersere furenti corpora ponto', Manil. v. 198 'ex undis … sese emersit in astra'). The author of the Octavia may have had this in mind when he wrote (706) 'talis emersam freto / spumante Peleus coniugem accepit Thetim'.
  
gurgite : see on 65. 5.
15. monstrum, 'apparition': unlike the English 'monster' in modern use, monstrum has no implication of size. It is a word of religious language (mon(e)strum from the stem of moneo), first applied to an object which conveys a portent, as in Virg. Aen. iii. 59 monstra deum, then extended to other 'uncanny' things. In Horace, Od. i. 37. 21 Cleopatra is fatale monstrum; Virgil uses the word of the Trojan horse (Aen. ii. 245), of Io's gadfly (Georg. iii. 152), and (with mock solemnity) of the pests of the stack-yard (Georg. i. 185).
  
Nereidĕs : the Greek nominative plural; see on 3.
  
The spondaic ending perhaps represents the lingering looks of surprise.
16. ilia atque <haud> alia : Bergk's correction is the most likely ('on that day and no other'), although this appearance of the Nereids escorting a ship is by no means unparalleled in poetry: cf. Soph. O.C. 716–19 ἁ δ‎ʼ εὐήρετμος‎ … πλάτα‎ / θρώσκει, τῶν ἑκατομπόδων‎ / Νηρῄδων ἀκόλουθος‎, Eur. El. 433 κλειναὶ νᾶες‎ … πέμπουααι χόρους μετὰ Νηρῄδων‎. Vahlen's ilia, alia atque alia, which goes to the opposite extreme ('on that day and other succeeding days'), is pointless and obscure; 68. 152, haec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia, which suggested it, is neither.
17. oculis regularly adds emphasis to uidere: e.g. Ter. Hec. 863 'numquam ante hunc diem meis oculis eam uideram'.
18. nutricum tenus : the use of the genitive with the preposition tenus (explained by the fact that tenus was originally a noun) is not uncommon with plural substantives, even in prose where there is no question of metrical convenience (so Virg. Georg. iii. 53 crurum tenus, Cic. Arat. 83 lumborum tenus, Quint. xii. 2.17 aurium tenus, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. viii. 1. 2 Cumarum tenus): with singular substantives the ablative is normal. The use of nutrices for papillae is unparalleled and seems to have been suggested by the similar use of τίτθη‎.
19. Peleus : with the characteristic compression of the style, Catullus does not mention that Peleus was on board the Argo. This romantic story of love at first sight between the mermaid and the mortal is found only here. In the usual form of the legend, as it is told by Apollonius (i. 558), Peleus is already the husband of Thetis and the father of Achilles when he goes with the Argo: in Valerius Flaccus (i. 130) the wedding scene appears on the Argo's décor and (i. 255 ff.) little Achilles is brought to see his father off. As for the courtship, in Homer (Il. xviii. 434) Thetis marries Peleus οὐκ ἐθέλουσα‎ and in Ovid's version (Met. xi. 221) Peleus, instructed by Jupiter to marry Thetis, has to overcome a series of Protean metamorphoses before he can secure her.
19 ff. The anaphora of tum (cf. 39–41, 63–65), an Alexandrian mannerism, is accompanied by another in the repetition of the name in different cases: for the first cf. Call. Hymn 4. 70–72 φεῦγε μὲν Ἀρκαδίη, φεῦγεν δ‎ʼ ὄρος ἱερὸν Αὔγης‎ / Παρθένιον, φεῦγεν δ‎ʼ ὁ γέρων μετόπισθε Φενειός‎, / φεῦγε δ‎ʼ ὄλη Πελοπηίς‎ …; for the second, Hymn 2. 44 ff. (Φοίβῳ‎ … Φοίβου‎ … Φοῖβον‎).
19. Thetidis … Thetidī : see on 3.
20. despexīt hymenaeos : Catullus has this irregular lengthening in the fifth foot before the Greek word hymenaeus again at 62. 4 dicetur hymenaeus, 66. 11 auctus hymenaeo, clearly echoing a Greek rhythm (see Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 451); Virgil takes over the mannerism, Aen. x. 720 profugus hymenaeos, vii. 398 canit hymenaeos, and has similar examples of lengthening before hyacinthus (Ecl. 6. 53, Georg. iv. 137, Aen. xi. 69).
21. pater ipse : i.e. Jupiter (ipse diuum genitor in 27): so Virg. Georg. i. 121, 328, Aen. ii. 617.
  
sensit : 'judged': Pontanus's sanxit is unnecessary: for this use of sentire cf. Hor. C.S. 73.*
22. The apostrophe belongs to the hymn-style : cf. Call. Hymn 1. 91–94 χαῖρε μέγα Κρονίδη πανυπέρτατε‎ … χαῖρε πάτερ, χαῖρ‎ʼ αὗθι‎.
  
nimis : 'very': see on 43. 4.
  
optato : cf. 31, 141, 328, 62. 30, 66. 79, all in contexts relating to love and marriage: so Virg. Aen. viii. 405 optatos amplexus, xi. 270 coniugium optatum, Prop. i. 14. 9.
  
saeclorum tempore : for the periphrasis cf. Prop. 1. 4. 7 'formosi temporis aetas', Tib. i. 8. 47 'primi temporis aetas'.
23. The manuscripts have the meaningless o bona mater: the quotation in the Verona scholia on Aen. v. 80 corrects the last word to matrum and adds half of the following line. Munro's iterumque iterumque bonarum and Peerlkamp's iterum salvete bonarum are equally possible supplements. For bona matrum bonarum progenies cf. 34. 5 'maximi / magna progenies Iouis': for iterum cf. Virg. Aen. v. 80 'salue sancte parens, iterum saluete recepti / nequiquam cineres animaeque umbraeque paternae' (so αὗθι‎ in Callim. quoted on 22 above).
  deum genus : cf. 61. 2 'Uraniae genus', Virg. Aen. vi. 792 'Augustus Caesar, diui genus': Catullus' phrase may have been suggested by Hesiod, W.D. 159 ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος‎.
24. saepe … compellabo : the promise is not fulfilled, but it is a regular formula of the hymn-style from the Homeric hymns onwards: cf. Hom. Hymn 3. 546 αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ καὶ σεῖο καὶ ἄλλης μνήσομ‎ʼ ἀοιδῆς‎ (so in several other hymns), Theoc. 1. 144 χαίρετε πολλάκι, Μοῖσαι‎, / χαίρετ‎ʼ· ἐγὼ δ‎ʼ ὔμμιν καὶ ἐς ὔστερον ἄδιον ἀ̣σῶ‎, 17. 135 χαῖρε, ἄναξ Πτολεμαῖε, σέθεν δ‎ʼ ἐλὼ ἷσα καὶ ἄλλων‎ / μνάσομαι ἡμιθέων‎.
25. teque adeo : adeo, as often, marks a climax: cf. Virg. Ecl. 4. 11 'teque adeo decus hoc aeui, te consule, inibit', Georg. i. 24 'tuque adeo' (addressed to Augustus at the end of a series of divinities).
  
eximie … aucte, 'blessed beyond others': cf. 66. 11 'nouo auctus hymenaeo'.
  
taedis, i.e. nuptiis, as in 302: Catullus is the first to use this metonymy, which becomes regular in later verse.
  
Thessaliae columen : for the metaphor cf. Plaut. Cas. 536 'senati columen', Cic. Verr. ii. 3. 176 'columen familiae', Hor. Od. ii. 17. 4 'Maecenas mearum / grande decus columenque rerum': so, in Greek, Hector is Tροίας κίων‎, Pind. OI. 2. 82.
26 f. ipse, / ipse : epanalepsis is a favourite device in this poem (as it is in Lucretius), sometimes as here (and in 321) emphatic, sometimes pathetic (61, 132, 403) or picturesque (259, 285). The device goes back to Homer (e.g. Od. i. 23, Il. ii. 849) and was cultivated by the Alexandrians (e.g. Call. Hymn 1. 33, 4. 118, Theoc. 9. 2).
27. suos … amores : for the personal use see on 10. 1. Jupiter's waiving of his claim in favour of a mortal was prompted by the prophetic warning of Prometheus (Aesch. P.V. 911 ff.)—or Themis (Pind. Isth. 8. 32 ff.)—that a son born to Thetis would be greater than his father.
28. Nereine : Haupt's correction of nectine is the most probable. Nereine does not occur elsewhere except in the late Greek poets Oppian and Quintus Smyrnaeus, but they no doubt had hellenistic precedent for it: the normal Latin form is Nerine (Virg. Ecl. 7. 37). Ellis's Neptunine is an illegitimate hybrid: the Greek suffix -ine is not uncommon in Latin but only attached to Greek names (Aeetine, Euenine).
  
tene Thetis tenuit : the question is a hellenistic device: so, e.g., Call. Hymn 3. 113. For tenuit cf. 45. 2, 72. 2.*
29. neptem : Oceanus and Tethys are the parents of Doris, mother of the Nereids,
30. The line may have been suggested by the line ascribed to Euphorion (fr. 122 Powell) ὠκεανός, τῷ πᾶσα περίρρυτος ἐνδέδεται χθών‎.
31. quae … luces : i.e. the marriage-day (the 'poetic' plural is here, more clearly than anywhere else in Catullus, a metrical expedient): the relative forms a loose connexion with the idea of the preceding lines.
  
finito tempore : 'at the appointed time': for tempus finire cf. Livy xxxix. 17. 2 'diem certam se finituros', xlv. 12. 7 'die finita'.
33. laetanti : used adjectivally again in 221.
35. Cieros : the manuscript readings point to Scyros, but Scyros, an island lying out in the Aegean east of Euboea, seems out of place in this Thessalian list. The only possible explanation of its appearance here would be that Catullus, who shared the inaccuracy in matters of foreign geography to which all Latin poetry is prone (see Kroll, Studien z. Verständnis d. röm. Literatur, 293 ff.: cf. 324), was misled by the connexion of Scyros with the later episode in the story of Thetis and Achilles. (Achilles was concealed in Scyros by his mother in a vain attempt to prevent his going to the Trojan War.) Meineke's Cieros, the name of an old town in Thessaliotis (Strabo ix. 435) saves Catullus' geography: the mention of so obscure a place among the well-known names of these lines would be a piece of hellenistic erudition.
  
Pthiotica Tempe : Tempe, the valley of the Peneus between Olympus and Ossa (see on 285) is in the very north of Thessaly, far from Phthiotis, the southerly region of the country, but Catullus had precedent for his confusion in Callimachus (Hymn 4. 112 Πηνειὲ Φθιῶτα, τί νῦν ἀνέμοισιν ἐρίζεις‎;). For the spelling, cf. 211 Erectheum; Greek double aspirates were not preserved in Latin transliteration.
36. Crannon and Laris(s)a were the two chief towns of Central Thessaly, lying north of Pharsalus.
37. Pharsalum : Pharsaliam is not impossible. Repetition of a word with change of quantity (Pharsăliam … Pharsālia) is an Alexandrian mannerism (e.g. Theoc. 6.19 τὰ μὴ κᾰλὰ κᾱλὰ πέφανται‎, 18. 51 Κύ̆πρις δὲ θεὰ Κύ̆πρις‎, Call. Hymn 4. 204 πέρᾱ πέρᾰ εἰς ἐμέ‎ cf. 62. 5), and, while there is no authority for the quantity Pharsălia, it might be supported by such novelties as Ovid's Leucŏsia and Crimĭsen (Λευκωσία‎ and Κριμῖσα‎ are the only forms known in Greek). Alternatively it would be possible to suppose that the -a- keeps its length and that the word as scanned is a trisyllable, i being treated as a consonant. But Pharsalia is nowhere else found for Pharsalus as the name of the town, whereas the combination with Crannon and Larissa, the absence of a preposition, and perhaps the verb coeunt, point to the name of a town here.
38. mollescunt : i.e. the skin hardened by the yoke grows soft again: here and in 42 the commonplace description of the deserted countryside (cf. Tib. ii. 1. 5–7, Ov. F. i. 665–6) is pursued with extravagant hyperbole.
39. humilis … uinea : these are vines growing low and not trained on trees (humilis is Varro's technical term, opposed to sublimis, R.R. i. 8. 1): the soil round them is hoed to loosen it and clear it of weeds (Colum. iv. 4. 3).
40. Prono … uomere, 'no ox tears up the clods with deep-driven share': cf. Virg. Georg. ii. 356 'presso exercere solum sub uomere'. The slow rhythm of the four spondees conveys the impression of effort, of the ox toiling along the furrow (for a similar effect cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 174, of the blacksmith Cyclopes, 'illi inter sese magna ui bracchia tollunt'): Catullus uses the same metrical device in 130 and 202, where it represents Ariadne's slow and halting cries.
41. frondatorum : the pruners thin the foliage which is keeping off the sunlight (Virg. Georg. i. 156 'ruris opaci / falce premes umbras', Colum. v. 6. 17) and at the same time get leaves for fodder.
42. squalida : 'a scaly rust spreads over the abandoned ploughs'.
43. at turns the reader's eye to the other side of the picture: cf. 58, 251. For the postponement of at see on 23. 7.
  
ipsius : i.e. the master, Peleus himself: cf. Virg. Ecl. 3. 3 'ipse Neaeram / dum fouet', Ter. And. 360 'ipsus tristis': see on 3. 7, and cf. 114. 6, 115. 7.
  
quacumque … recessit : 'as far as the sumptuous palace stretched back': recessit conveys the idea of a vista of a series of rooms or courts: cf. Pliny, Ep. ii. 17. 21 'contra parietem medium zotheca recedit'.
45. soliis … mensae : dative: 'the thrones have white ivory, the table glittering cups': so Virg. Aen. vi. 603 'lucent genialibus altis / aurea fulcra toris'.
46. gaudet : ' is gay': only here in this use, but there are similar uses of ridere (Hor. Od. iv. 11. 6 'ridet argento domus') and γελᾶν‎ (Hom. Il. xix. 362 γέλασσε δὲ πᾶσα περὶ χθὼν‎ / χαλκοῦ ὑπὸ στεροπῆς‎).
  
gaza : first here and in Lucr. ii. 37, Cic. Leg. Man. 66 (66 b.c.), a Persian word borrowed from Greek.
47. puluinar … geniale : Catullus thinks in Roman terms of the lectus genialis which stood in the atrium at and after a Roman wedding: for a hero and a goddess the lectus becomes a puluinar, the seat provided ceremonially at a lectisternium for the gods, represented by their images.
48. Indo … dente : i.e. ivory: for the construction cf. Virg. Aen. v. 663 'pictas abiete puppis', xi. 890 'duros obice postes'. The couch is inlaid with ivory (cf. 61. 108) and covered with a purple cloth (for the white-red contrast cf. 309, 61. 9 f. n., 187): cf. Varro, Sat. 447 Büch. 'in eborato lecto ac purpureo peristromate', Hor. Sat. ii. 6.102 'rubro ubi cocco / tinctasuper lectos canderet uestis eburnos', Suet. Jul. 84 'lectus eburnus auro ac purpura stratus'.
49. conchyli purpura fuco : 'covered by a purple cloth steeped in the red dye of the conchylium'. Strictly purpura and conchylium apply to animal colouring matter, the product of the molluscs of these names (for an account of them and of the technical processes see Pliny, N.H. ix. 125–38), fucus to a vegetable colouring, the product of archil (the source of litmus in modern times): technically the latter was used as a base for the former (Plin. N.H. xxvi. 103 'fucus marinus conchyliis substernitur'). But they are regularly identified in Latin poetry as they are here. Purpura (πορφύρα‎) is first the shell-fish itself, then the colour of the dye produced from it (Virg. Georg. iv. 275 'uiolae sublucet purpura nigrae') or (as here and in Prop. iv. 3. 51) the cloth dyed with it.
50–266. The description of the coverlet, portraying the story of Ariadne.
50. uariata : for uariare of embroidery cf. Val. Flacc. iii. 12 'uestes I quas … picto … uariauerat auro'; so of painting, Prop. ii. 6. 33 'istis olim uariabant tecta figuris'. See on uario 61. 87.
51. uirtutes : 'deeds of prowess': cf. 348, 357, 68. 90, Virg. Aen. i. 565–6 'quis Troiae nesciat urbem / uirtutesque uirosque?'
52. fluentisono : the compound occurs only here: cf. 125, 320 clarisonus, 263 raucisonus.
  
Diae : the name is already in Homer's account of Ariadne (Od. xi. 321), where Dia is an island on which Ariadne was killed by Artemis on her way from Crete to Athens. By Alexandrian times it had been identified with Naxos: Callim. fr. 601 Pf. ἐν Δίῃ‎· τὸ γὰρ ἔσκε παλαίερον οὔνομα Νάξῳ‎.
53. cum classe : classis is not in itself a plural notion and can refer to an expedition consisting of one ship (Hor. Od. iii. 11. 48, Virg. Aen. vi. 334 with Servius' note), but puppes in 172 seems to imply that Theseus had more than one.
54. furores : of the passion of love as in 94, 124, 50. 11 (in-domitus furore), 68. 129; cf. Virg. Aen. i. 658 ff. 'ut … Cupido … furentem / incendat reginam atque ossibus implicet ignem', iv. 101 'ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem'.
55. uisit uisere : Voss's palmary emendation: as at 211 uisere provides a convenient metrical alternative to uidere.
56. utpote … quae : 'no wonder, since she …': cf. 67. 43; utpote qui is a prosaic construction: utpote is found elsewhere in verse only in Horace's satiric hexameters.
57. sola : 'deserted' as in 154, 184: so Virg. Aen. xi. 545 'solorum nemorum', 569 'solis montibus'.
58. immemor is again applied to Theseus in 123, 135, 248. In one version of the story Theseus was represented as having been visited with amnesia by Dionysus (schol. on Theoc. 2. 48). But immemor regularly implies not mere absentmindedness but indifference to one's obligations, ingratitude, or treachery (cf. 30. 1).
  
at : see on 43.
  
pellit uada remis : note the rare cadence produced by the strong caesura in the fifth foot, which extends the conflict between ictus and word accent to that foot, in which they normally coincide. (On Virgil's use of it see Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 446.) The unusual cadence and the series of dactyls may perhaps represent the splashing of the oars, as Kroll suggests.
60. ex alga : from the seaweed at the edge of the shore: cf. 168.
  
ocellis : for the diminutive, an intimacy of common speech conveying an emotional overtone, see n. on 3. 18. In admitting it to high poetry Catullus makes it a means of enhancing the sentimental, romantic treatment of the theme: of nouns he has also lectulus (88), munusculum (103), labellum (104), of adjectives frigidulus (131), aridulus (316), languidulus (331). The author of the Ciris, writing in the same manner, has labellum (496) and frigidulus (251, 348). But the innovation had a short life: in the narrative verse of the Augustans and their successors it is abandoned (see A. S. F. Gow, C.Q. xxvi [1932], 150 ff.).
61. bacchantis : Ariadne is wild as a maenad but silent and motionless.
  
prospicit : see on 26 f.: the pathetic repetition makes Bergk's eheu certain.
62. fluctuat : for the metaphor cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 19 'magno curarum fluctuat aestu', Lucr. vi. 34 'uoluere curarum tristes in pectore fluctus'.
63. flauo : cf. 98, 66. 62, 68. 130. Fair hair conventionally belongs to the heroes and heroines of legend, even to Sidonia Dido (Virg. Aen. iv. 590: for a list of references see Pease's note there).
  mitram : the mitra was a cap or bonnet with strings under the chin (redimicula, Virg. Aen. ix. 616) associated with the East and particularly with Lydia. subtilem has its literal sense of 'fine-woven'.
64–65. contecta … pectus, … uincta papillas : this poetic idiom probably had a native origin in the use of a verb in the middle voice (expressing an action done in relation to the agent himself) with a direct object. Traces of a transitive middle survive in a few expressions such as Hor. Sat. ii. 7. 38 'nasum nidore supinor', A.P. 302 'purgor bilem', and a middle form has persisted in the participles of a few verbs whose sense is essentially middle (gauisus, pransus, cenatus). In contecta pectus, vincta papillas, and similar phrases the object is a part of the agent's own body: so Ennius 400 V. 'succincti corda machaeris', Virg. Ecl. 6. 68 'crinis ornatus', 7. 32 'suras euincta cothurno', Georg. iv. 337 'caesariem effusae' (where the verb plainly cannot be passive), Aen. iv. 518 'exuta pedem', xi. 877 'percussae pectora'. (In others the object is something external to the agent: so Virg. Aen. ii. 510 'inutile ferrum cingitur', 392 'galeam … induitur'.) But Catullus' restrictus membra (296) or Virgil's percussa mentem (Georg. iv. 357) cannot be explained thus: the participial 'middle' idiom seems to have become confused with a much wider poetic use taken over from Greek, that of the accusative 'of respect' with verbs, active or passive, and adjectives.
  
uelatum repeats the idea contained in contecta: similarly in Tib. i. 6. 67 'quamuis non uitta ligatos / impediat crines', ligatos repeats the idea in impediat.
65. tereti : see on 314.
66 f. quae … alludebant : the verb is used of the sea again in Cic. N.D. ii. 100 'mare terram appetens litoribus adludit', Ov. Met. iv. 342, Stat. Theb. ix. 336: Val. Flacc. vi. 665 repeats the transitive use.
67. ipsius : their mistress's feet: ipse, as often, marks the central figure of the picture.
68. sed neque tum … neque tum : the same anaphora (cf. 19–21) in Ciris 116.
68 f. mitrae … uicem curans : 'not troubling on account of …': the editors quote Cic. Att. viii. 2. 2 'quoius ego uicem doleo', Fam. xii. 23. 3 'tuam uicem saepe doleo', Livy xliv. 3. 5 'sollicito consuli … eorum uicem'.
69. ex te … Theseu : the apostrophe was developed by hellenistic poetry as a device to give a subjective, personal quality to the narrative, and thence was adopted by the neoterici: thereafter it becomes a regular part of the technique of Latin verse (Norden, Aeneid vi, pp. 122, 126). Cf. 253, 299: see also on 4. 13.
69 f. pectore … animo … mente : no distinction is to be drawn; the words reinforce one another.
71. externauit : externare and consternare are both compounds of an intensive verb in -are corresponding to sternere as, for example, (pro)fligare corresponds to (af)fligere: but the Romans themselves probably connected externare with externus and explained it as 'put beside oneself'.
  
a misera : for the exclamation cf. Calvus, fr. 9 M. 'a uirgo infelix: herbis pasceris amaris'.
72. Erycina : Venus, who had an old-established cult, with a famous temple, on Mount Eryx in west Sicily: the cult was familiar in Rome and a temple of Venus Erycina was built there in 181 b.c.
  
serens : 'planting': the verb is not confined to sowing seed; cf. Hor. Od. i. 18. 1 'nullam, Vare, sacra uite prius seueris arborem', Cic. Rep. iii. 16 'Transalpinas gentis oleam et uitem serere non sinimus'. For the metaphor cf. Soph. Ajax 1005 ἀνἰας μοι κατασπείρας φθίνεις‎.
  
curas : of the sorrows of love: cf. 68. 18, 51.
73. ilia tempestate … quo ex tempore : for tempestas, 'time', cf. 66. 11 qua tempestate: by Cicero's day it was a poetical archaism which he was prepared to allow occasionally in prose (de Or. iii. 153; he uses it himself in de Div. i. 75); Sallust and Livy both favour it. The repetition of tempestate by its synonym tempore in the relative clause is a simple instance of the idiom discussed on 96. 3 (doloredesiderio); but we should expect illa ex tempestatequo tempore, 'from the time at which' (cf. 35. 13 quo temporeex eo).
74. curuis … litoribus : an epic phrase: cf. Accius fr. 570 R. curuum litus. Piraeus was the harbour of Athens.
75. iniusti : so Minos is ὀλοόφρων‎ in Homer, Od. xi. 322, ἄγριος καὶ χαλεπὸς καὶ ἄδικος‎ in [Plato], Minos 318d.
  
Gortynia : Minos' capital was at Cnossus (Od. xix. 178), not at Gortyn, and no stress is to be put on the adjective: Catullus finds Gortynia a convenient adjective for 'Cretan', as Virgil does in Aen. xi. 773 spiculaGortynia.
  templa : from its original meaning of a space ritually marked out, in the sky or on the ground, for purposes of augury, templum comes to be used on the one hand of any sacred enclosure or building (of a palace, as here, in Ennius, Andromache 92 V. 'o Priami domus, / saeptum altisono cardine templum') and on the other generally of a region, abode, or seat (66. 63 'templa deum'; so in Plaut. M.G. 413 'me in locis Neptuniis templisque turbulentis / seruauit', and often in Lucretius, e.g. i. 120 'Acherusia templa', v. 1436 'mundi templum', v. 948 'siluestria templa Nympharum').
76. perhibent : see on l. 1.
77. Androgeoneae … caedis : 'the murder of Androgeon': for the use of the adjective see on 368. Minos' son Androgeon (Prop. ii. 1. 62 uses the same Latin form: only Ἀνδρογέως‎ is found in Greek) met his death while he was on a visit to Attica: Minos held the Athenians responsible, attacked their city, and imposed his terms on them: for the story cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 20 ff. (a description of Daedalus' carvings on the temple of Apollo at Cumae) 'in foribus letum Androgeo, tum pendere poenas / Cecropidae iussi—miserum—septena quotannis / corpora natorum: stat ductis sortibus urna'.
78. electos : need not refer to the choosing of the victims by lot (see Virgil quoted above): cf. 4 lecti iuuenes, 36. 6 electissima.
79 f. Three consecutive σπονδειάζοντες‎ (see on l. 3) occur in Latin only here: but Catullus had hellenistic precedent (e.g. Theoc. 13. 42–44, Call. H. 3. 222–4, Apoll. iv. 1191–3, Aratus 953–5, Euphorion, fr. 34 Powell).
79. Cecropiam : again in 83, 172: a convenient equivalent for Athens or Attica (from its legendary King Cecrops) which hellenistic poets had discovered (e.g. Call. Hymn 3. 227, 4. 315, Apoll. i. 95).
  
dapem : daps (Catullus has the rare singular again in 304) is a solemn, religious word, originally used of a sacrificial meal.
80. angusta : the συνοικισμός‎ of Attica credited to Theseus was still to come: Athens was still small and the sacrifice of its youth was the more felt.
82. proicere optauit : 'chose to sacrifice': cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 435 'lucemque perosi / proiecere animas'.
  
potius quam … portarentur : for the construction cf. Plaut. Aul. 11 'inopemque optauit potius eum relinquere / quam eum thesaurum commonstraret', Ter. And. 797 'sese inhoneste optauit parere hic diuitias / potius quam in patria honeste pauper uiueret', Cic. Tusc. ii. 52 'perpessus est omnia potius quam conscios delendae tyrannidis indicaret', Nepos Eum. 11. 4 'cur non in proelio cecidisti potius quam in potestatem inimici uenires?'
83. funera … nec funera : 'living corpses': the phrase is constructed on the model of such Greek expressions as γάμος ἄγαμος, πόλις ἄπολις, χάρις ἄχαρις, δῶρα ἄδωρα‎. Cicero ventures on insepulta sepultura (Phil. 1. 5, of Caesar's funeral, which was no funeral) and quotes innuptis nuptiis (γάμοις ἀγάμοις‎) from a tragic poet (de Or. iii. 219), but Latin does not lend itself to the formation of such negative compounds. For nec in the sense of nec tamen ('corpses and yet not corpses') cf. Ov. Met. viii. 231 'pater infelix nec iam pater', Carm. Epig. 428. 6 'nunc umbra nec umbra'. The same notion is otherwise expressed by Manilius, v. 548 (of Andromeda) 'uirginis et uiuae rapitur sine funere funus', and Apul. Met. iv. 34 (of Psyche) 'uiuum producitur funus'. For funus = νεκρός‎ cf. Virg. Aen. ix. 491 'lacerum funus'; in prose Varro, R.R. i. 4. 5 '(cum) omnes domus repletae essent aegrotis ac funeribus'.
84. ita : 'that being so' refers back to the circumstances just described, in this case Theseus' decision ('in pursuance of that purpose'): but atque ita (cf. 315: similarly itaque in 63. 6, 35), like καὶ οὔτως‎, is often simply a continuative formula equivalent to our 'and then' (cf. Hor. Sat. i. 3. 101, Ov. Her. 18. 115).
  
naue … nitens : cf. Prop. iv. 6. 63 'illa petit Nilum cymba male nixa fugaci'.
85. magnanimum : a conventional epic epithet, representing μεγάθυμος‎.
86. cupido … lumine : 'eyes', as lumina in 92, 233; for the singular cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 754 'uestigia … lumine lustro', Ov. Her. 16. 37 'ante tuos animo uidi quam lumine uultus'. As Kroll points out, love at first sight is de rigueur in hellenistic poetry: cf. Theoc. 2. 82 ὣς ἴδον, ὣς ἐμάνην‎, Apoll. iii. 286 ff., Ciris 130 'ni Scylla nouo correpta furore / … o nimium cupidis Minoa inhiasset ocellis', Prop. iv. 4. 21 ff. 'obstupuit regis facie et regalibus armis / interque oblitas excidit urna manus'.
87. odores : so in Homer, Od. iv. 121 Helen has a θάλαμος θυώδης‎.
88. alebat : she grows up in the women's quarters, in the inner part of the house, under the charge of her mother, Pasiphae.
89. quales … myrtus : the conventional comparison (see on 61. 21) is enlivened, in a characteristically Alexandrian way, by the particularity of a proper name, Eurotas, as it is by Asia in 61. 22. Cf. 105.
  
praecingunt : Baehrens's correction for V's pergignunt: but progignunt (cf. 1 prognatae) is perhaps more likely.
90. distinctos : i.e. differentiated, with much the same sense as uario in 61. 87: for the plural colores used of the gay colours of flowers cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 306 'ante nouis rubeant quam prata coloribus', Prop. i. 2. 9 'aspice quos summittat humus formosa colores', Tib. i. 4. 29 'quam cito purpureos deperdit terra colores', Culex 70 'florida cum tellus gemmantis picta per herbas / uere notat dulci distincta coloribus arua', Val. Flacc. vi. 492 'lilia per uarios lucent uelut alba colores'.
91. declinauit : cf. Ov. Met. vii. 86–88 'in uultu ueluti tum denique uiso / lumina fixa tenet … nec se declinat ab illo'.
92. concepit corpore flammam : the fire of love is thought of as physical: cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 356 'toto percepit pectore flammam' (with a similar alliteration), iv. 101 'ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem', viii. 389 f. 'accepit solitam flammam notusque medullas / intrauit calor et labefacta per ossa cucurrit'.
93. medullis : see on 45. 16.
  
atque : for the postponement of the connective see on 23. 7.
94 f. heu … sancte puer : for the apostrophe cf. Apoll. iv. 445 σχέτλι‎ʼ Ἔρως, μέγα πῆμα, μέγα στύγος ἀνθρώποισιν‎, / ἐκ σέθεν οὐλόμεναί τ‎ʼ ἔριδες στοναχαί τε γόοι τε‎.
94. furores : see on 54.
95. sanete puer : see on 34. 22, 36. 3: cf. Tib. ii. 1. 81 (to Amor) 'sancte, ueni dapibus festis sed pone sagittas'.
  
misces : cf. 68. 18 'quae dulcem curis miscet amaritiem'.
96. Golgos … Idalium : see on 36. 12: the line looks as if it were suggested by Theoc. 15. 100 δέσποιν‎ʼ ἅ Γόλγως τε καὶ‎ ʼΙδάλιον ἐφίλησας‎.
98. in flauo … hospite : for flauus cf. 63. For in ('over') used of a personal object of emotion, cf. 119, 22. 17, 45. 23, 61. 97, Ter. Eun. 567 'in hac commotus sum', Hor. Od. i. 17. 19 'laborantes in uno / Penelopen uitreamque Circen', Prop. i. 13. 7 'perditus in quadam tardis pallescere curis / incipis', Ov. A.A. i. 732 'pallidus in lenta Naide Daphnis erat', Am. i. 9. 33 'ardet in abducta Briseide magnus Achilles', Met. vii. 21 'quid in hospite, regia uirgo, / ureris?'
99. languenti : 'fainting'; see on 219.
100. fulgore expalluit auri : see on 81. 4.
  
quanto : if the manuscript reading is right, quanto must be taken as ablative of measure of comparison with magis, 'how much more'. But Faernus's quam tum (quam with saepe, 'how often') may be right: the corruption would be easily explained by assimilation to the preceding line.
101. monstrum : i.e. the Minotaur: see on 15.
102. praemia laudis : i.e. reward consisting in glory: Cicero has the same phrase Mil. 81 'id fateri ex quo etiam praemia laudis essent petenda'; so Tusc. i. 34 'mercedem gloriae'. The line is a reminiscence of Apoll. iv. 205 ἠὲ κατηφείην ἤ καὶ μέγα κῦδος ἀρέσθαι‎.
  
appeteret is clearly required: for mortem appetere of a voluntary death cf. Sen. Ep. 24. 23, Suet. Nero 2. 3.
103. non ingrata tamen : in spite of her fears (tamen) the gifts she promised were not without return or promised ineffectually. frustra reinforces ingrata as nequiquam reinforces uanis in 111; cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 101 'sed quid ego haec autem nequiquam ingrata reuoluo?'. For ingrata see on 73. 3.
103 f. munuscula … labello : see on 60.
104. succepit uota : the manuscripts read succendit; uota succendere is an improbable phrase for making a burnt offering which has been vowed, and in any case a reference to the promise, not to the discharge of it, is needed here. Statius's succepit is probable: Ovid has 'uota publica suscipimus' Met. vii. 450, and the archaic form of the compound is preserved several times elsewhere (though always with the literal sense, 'take up'): e.g. Virg. Aen. vi. 248 'cruorem / succipiunt pateris', Prop. iv. 9. 36 'caua succepto flumine palma'. The early correction suspendit would mean 'let her prayers hang irresolute', 'left them half spoken' (cf. Lucr. v. 1069 'suspensis dentibus' of a dog's teeth half closed in play, Quint. x. 7. 22 'suspensa ac velut dubitans oratio'), reinforced by tacito—a neat phrase but palaeographically less likely.
105–11. The simile of the falling tree has its prototype in Homer (e.g. Il. v. 560 ff., xiii. 389 ff.) and in Apollonius (iii. 967 ff., iv. 1680 ff., quoted on 108): here as in 89 Catullus uses the Alexandrian device of particularity to add colour and life to the image: the falling tree is on the summit of Taurus, the great massif which closes the central plateau of Asia Minor on the south. On Horace's use of the same device see Heinze on Od. i. 1. 14.
105. brachia : cf. Virg. Georg. ii. 296 'late ramos et brachia tendens': but the word is in ordinary use as a technical term of forestry.
106. conigeram : coniger occurs only here, but Virgil has conifer, Aen. iii. 680.
  
sudanti cortice : of resin here, as of amber in Virg. Ecl. 8. 54 'pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricae'.
107. indomitus turbo : 'ungovernable'; the whirlwind has no control over itself.
  contorquens … robur : 'wrenching the trunk': cf. Virg. Georg. i. 481 (of the Po) 'insano contorquens uortice siluas'. For robur cf. Aen. iv. 441 (in another tree simile) 'annoso ualidam cum robore quercum', Georg. ii. 64 'solido de robore myrtus'.
108. eruit : the pause after the first foot perhaps represents the sudden 'give'.
  
illa procul, &c. : the change of subject is regular in the epic simile, e.g. Apoll. iv. 1682 ff.:
  •      ἀλλ‎ʼ ὤς τίς τ‎ʼ ἐν ὄρεσσι πελωρίη ὑψόθι πεύκη‎,
  •      τήν τε θοοῖς πελέκεσσιν ἔθ‎ʼ ἡμιπλῆγα λιπόντες‎
  •      ὑλοτόμοι δρυμοῖο κατήλυθον‎· ἡ δ‎ʼ ὑπὸ νυκτὶ‎
  •      ῥιπῇσιν μὲν πρῶτα τινάσσεται, ὔστερον αὑτε‎
  •      πρυμνόθεν‎ (radicitus) ἐξαγεῖσα κατήριπεν‎· ὡς ὄ γε κ‎.τ‎.λ‎.
Editor’s Note
1 The quasi-technical term epyllion, 'miniature epic', which is frequently used by modern scholars to describe this and similar poems in Latin and their Alexandrian prototypes, has no ancient authority; it was first used by Haupt, in a lecture on this poem, in 1855 (Opuscula, pp. 67 ff.). ἐπύλλιον‎ is only once applied to a work of literature—by Athenaeus (ii. 65a), who uses it of a poem ascribed to Homer; epyllium is not found in Latin before Ausonius, who uses it twice (pp. 335, 360 Peiper) as a general term for short poems. The term has a certain convenience, but it is misleading in so far as it obscures the fact that the technique of story-telling was essentially the same in 'miniature epics' (like Callimachus' Hecale) and in narrative elegies (like his Αἴτια‎) or in the narrative parts of hymns (like his hymn on the Bath of Pallas).
Editor’s Note
1 On this form of digression (ἔκφρασις‎) see Friedländer, Joannes von Gaza, 11 ff. Catullus may well have been thinking of a particular representation of the Ariadne story in art: the theme was a common one.
Editor’s Note
1 e.g. 68 (6 t's), 92 (4 c's), 159 (4 p's) 258 (6 s's), 282 (3 f's), 293 (3 u's); the purpose of a particular consonantal alliteration often cannot be detected, but the effect of vowel-assonance in echoing in the sense is sometimes very obvious, as it is in 155 and in 261–4.
Editor’s Note
2 Only 55 lines have an internal pause: contrast Virgil's practice.
Editor’s Note
3 At 63–65 three consecutive lines are thus constructed on three different patterns (abAB, abBA, aAbB). Virgil used the device much more sparingly—in the Aeneid in one line in forty-three: see Norden, Aeneid vi, pp. 394 ff.
Editor’s Note
1 In his use of diminutives, a pure latinism, Catullus was not followed: see on 1. 60.
Editor’s Note
2 For unmistakable instances see 115, 141, 156, 327; there are other verbal echoes which were probably unconscious, e.g. 404 'impia non uerita est diuos scelerare penates'—Aen. vi. 612–13 'quique arma secuti / impia nec ueriti dominorum fallere dextras …'
Editor’s Note
64 (p. 276). See also K. Quinn in Critical Essays in Roman Literature: Elegy and Lyric (1962); J. C. Bramble in Proc. Camb. Philol. Soc. 196 (1970), 22 ff.
Editor’s Note
64. 3. Add Amastri (4. 13), Ancona (36. 13), Amathunta (36. 14).
Editor’s Note
64. 21. This use of sentire is common in Cicero (e.g. Acad. i. 23, N.D. i. 27, Or. 195, Att. vii. 6. 2).
Editor’s Note
64. 28. tenuit: cf. Virg. Ecl. 1. 31 'dum me Galatea tenebat', Ov. Her. 2. 103 'iam te tenet altera coniunx', Prop. ii. 22. 37.
Critical Apparatus
64. 1 pelliaco V
Editor’s Note
64. 1 citat Marius Victorinus, ars gramm. (p. 125 K.).
Editor’s Note
1 f. quondam … dicuntur : quondam, like olim in 76, sets the scene in the romantic legendary past; dicuntur emphasizes at the outset the traditional source of the story. So fertur (19), perhibent (76, 124), ferunt (212): the Alexandrian scholar-poet stresses his dependence on tradition, though the tradition he follows may be an unusual one: cf. Call. fr. 612 Pf. ἀμάρτυρον οὐδὲν ἀείδω‎, Hymn 5. 56 μῦθος δ‎ʼ οὐκ ἐμός, ἀλλ‎ʼ ἑτέρων‎. On this literary convention, which Virgil and Propertius maintain, see Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 123.
Editor’s Note
prognatae : an old-fashioned, stately word which appears in the epitaphs of the Scipios (C.I.L. i2. 7 'Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus Gnaiuod patre prognatus') and in Ennius, and which Plautus uses in formal or solemn contexts (e.g. Amph. 365, Capt. 170); it survived (like our 'issue') in legal language.
Critical Apparatus
2 neptumni rmg
Editor’s Note
2. liquidas : cf. 162: a stock epithet of the epic style (cf. Virg. Aen. v. 859 'liquidas proiecit in undas').
Editor’s Note
nasse : cf. 4. 3 natantis trabis, and for a similar use of the voyagers themselves 66. 46.
Critical Apparatus
3 fasidicos O, fascidicos X: al. phasidos add. (nisi fallor) rmg
Critical Apparatus
aeetheios Parth.: ceticos O (al. tetidicos in margine), oeticos X
Editor’s Note
3. Phasidos ad fluctus : 'to the waters of Phasis', the river of Colchis which flowed from a source in the Caucasus into the Black Sea, 'and the lands of Aeetes', the king of Colchis in whose lands the golden fleece was to be found.
Editor’s Note
Phasidos : in earlier Latin verse Greek names are normally given Latin inflexions; such exceptions as Hectora in Ennius are few. Catullus uses Greek terminations freely. In this poem he has: 1st decl.—acc. sing. Amphitriten (11); 2nd decl.—nom. sing. Scyros (? Cieros) (35), Penios (285); 3rd decl.—acc. sing. Pelea (21, 301), Thesea (53, 239), Minoa (85); voc. sing. Peleu (26), Theseu (69, 133); gen. sing. Phasidos (3) [but Latin Thetidis (19, 302)]; dat. sing. Minoidĭ (247) [but Latin Thetidī (21, 336)], Pelei (382) [but Peleo (336)]; nom. plur. Nereides (15), Eumenides (193) [so heroes (23)]; acc. plur. Thyiadas (391). [To these forms a Greek dative plural may fall to be added in 287.] Elsewhere he has Cycladas (4. 7), Arabas (11. 5), Acmen (45. 21), Cybeles and Cybebes (63. 12, 20, 35, 68), Attin (63. 88), Athon (66. 46), Locridos Arsinoes (66. 54), Callisto (dat., 66. 66), Booten (66. 67), Tethyi (66. 70), Hydrochoi (dat.?, 66. 94) and (almost certainly) Chalybon (gen. plur., 66. 48). For the genitive of names ending in -eus he uses only the Latin termination: Thesei (120), Erechthei (229), Pelei (278), -ei becoming one syllable by synizesis.*
Editor’s Note
64. 3. Add Amastri (4. 13), Ancona (36. 13), Amathunta (36. 14).
Editor’s Note
fines : the plural is masculine here and in 66. 12: the singular is feminine in 217. The same variation is found with cinis: masculine plural at 68. 98, feminine singular at 68. 90.
Editor’s Note
Aeeteos : hexameters with a spondee in the fifth foot (σπονδειάζοντες‎) are not infrequent in Homer: the Alexandrians, always ready to cultivate the novel and the unobvious, took up this rhythm and made a mannerism of it (in Callimachus one in every eleven hexameters is a σπονδειάζων‎, in Aratus one in every six) and their Italian followers took over the affectation. Writing to Atticus about his voyage to Greece (Att. vii. 2. 1), Cicero writes 'flauit ab Epiro lenissimus Onchesmites' (a wind) and adds 'You can pass that off as your own and see what one of the modern poets will give you for it' (hunc σπονδειάζοντα‎ si cui uoles τῶν νεωτέρων‎ pro tuo uendito'). In this poem Catullus has 30 σπονδειάζοντες‎; he admits the σπονδειάζων‎ in elegiacs also (as Callimachus does not) and has four in each of poems 66 and 68 and one in each of 65, 76, 100, and 116. In eleven lines the spondaic ending consists of a Greek proper name and the rhythm is clearly being cultivated for its own sake, but there are others (as there are in the Alexandrians) in which it seems to be used to echo the sense in sound: so in 15 it may convey the gaze of wonder, in 91 the lingering look of love, in 98 its sighs, in 67 and 274 the continuous movement of the waves, in 277 the slow dispersal of the crowd, in 297 the lingering torture of Prometheus: for other examples see 78, 269, 286. Virgil continues the use of the spondaic ending, usually as an echo of Greek rhythm (e.g. Aen. iii. 74 'Nereidum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo'), sometimes with an obvious adaptation of sound to sense (e.g. Georg. iii. 276 'saxa per et scopulos et depressas conualles'), but is much more sparing with it: in over 12,000 hexameters he has 33 σπονδειάζοντες‎, little more than Catullus has in the 408 lines of this poem. In a σπονδειάζων‎ the fourth foot is normally a dactyl; Catullus has a spondee only in this line and in 1. 44.
Editor’s Note
On the orthography of the adjective see on 68. 109.
Critical Apparatus
4 pupis O, puppis X
Editor’s Note
4. lecti iuuenes, Argiuae robora pubis : cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 518 'robora pubis lecta'. For the archaic pubes ('man-power') cf. 267 'Thessala pubes', 68. 101. The phrase represents the λεκτοὶ ἡρώων‎ and φέριστον ἡρώων‎ of Apollonius.
Editor’s Note
5 ff. optantes … uerrentes : Catullus uses this prosaic participial construction again and again in this poem (cf. 54, 63, 72, 101: there are 32 examples in the narrative of 11. 1–131): Virgil prefers paratactic structure with finite verbs. (See Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 380.)
Editor’s Note
5. auertere is used especially of carrying off spoil: cf. Virg. Aen. i. 472 'auertit equos in castra', viii. 208 'quattuor a stabulis tauros auertit', Caes. B.C. iii. 59. 4 'praedam omnem domum auertebant'.
Editor’s Note
6. uada salsa : another epic phrase which Virgil repeats, Aen. v. 158 'sulcant uada salsa carina'.
Editor’s Note
decurrere : cf. Virg. Aen. v. 212 'prona petit maria et pelago decurrit aperto', and, for the accusative, Aen. iii. 191 'uastumque caua trabe currimus aequor'.
Critical Apparatus
7 uerentes V: corr. rmg
Editor’s Note
7. uerrentes : cf. Enn. Ann. 384 V. 'uerrunt extemplo placidum mare marmore flauo', Virg. Aen. vi. 320 'remis uada liuida uerrunt', iii. 208 'torquent spumas et caerula uerrunt'.
Editor’s Note
abiegnis … palmis : cf. 4. 4 palmula.
Editor’s Note
8. quibus refers back to iuuenes (4).
Editor’s Note
diua … retinens … arces : i.e. Athena in her function of πολιοῦχος‎ or πολιάς‎, worshipped on the acropolis of Athens. For retinens 'occupying' cf. Lucr. iv. 412 'terrarum milia multa / quae uariae retinent gentes'.
Editor’s Note
9. ipsa : Catullus makes no reference to Argus, the shipwright who built the Argo under Athena's guidance (Apoll. i. 18–19, 111–12).
Editor’s Note
currum : the word is applied to a ship only here, but ὄχος‎ and ὄχημα‎ are so used in Greek (Aesch. Supp. 33 ὄχῳ ταχυήρει‎, Soph. Tr. 656 πολύκωπον ὄχημα ναός‎).
Editor’s Note
10. texta carinae : 'fitting the pine timbers to the curved keel': the transference of texo from weaving to carpentry (in which ribs and crossbeams correspond to the criss-crossing warp and weft) is old and regular: Enn. trag. 66 V. 'mari magno classis cita texitur' (and, of a shipyard, Ann. 477 V. 'campus habet textrinum nauibus longis'), Virg. Aen. xi. 326 'Italo texamus robore nauis', Ov. Tr. i. 4. 9 'pinea texta sonant pulsu', Fasti i. 506 'pinea … ter pede texta ferit' (of deck planks): so of the wooden horse, Virg. Aen. ii. 112 'trabibus contextus acernis', 186 'roboribus textis'.
Critical Apparatus
11 prima β‎: proram O, primam X
Critical Apparatus
amphitritem X (al. amphitrionem R), aphitritem O (-te O corr.)
Editor’s Note
11. prima … Amphitriten : 'it was Argo which first handselled the untried Amphitrite with sailing', i.e. introduced the sea to the new experience of being sailed over: for the sense cf. Ov. Am. ii. 11. 1 'prima malas docuit, mirantibus aequoris undis, / Peliaco pinus uertice caesa uias': for imbuit cf. 4. 17, Val. Fl. i. 69 'ignaras Cereris qui uomere terras / imbuit'. primam … Amphitritem of GR gives no sense: Baehrens, reading proram … Amphitrite, translates 'she (Athena) first handselled with sea water (Amphitrite) Argo's prow untried in voyaging', but rudem cursu is an unparalleled phrase and the innocence of the sea is more in point than the inexperience of the ship.
Editor’s Note
Amphitrite : the use of the name of this Nereid, wife of Poseidon, by metonymy for the sea appears first here: no doubt Catullus found it in hellenistic poetry.
Critical Apparatus
12 procidit V: corr. Rmg
Editor’s Note
12. uentosum … aequor : cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 335 'uentosa per aequora uectos', Georg. 1. 206.
Editor’s Note
proscidit : 'first ploughed the windy seas': proscindere is a technical form for a first ploughing (Varro, R.R. i. 29. 2 'terram cum primum arant, proscindere appellant', Lucr. v. 209, Virg. Georg. i. 97).
Critical Apparatus
13 totaque V: corr. Auantius3
Critical Apparatus
incanuit Aldina: incanduit V
Editor’s Note
13. torta : 'the water churned by the oars grew white with foam': cf. Virg. Aen. iii. 207 'nautae / adnixi torquent spumas'.
Editor’s Note
incanuit : most editors accept the Aldine's correction for incanduit, believing that Catullus would not have written candenti immediately after incanduit. Both canesco (cf. 18 gurgite cano, Homer's πολίη ἄλς‎) and candeo, candesco can be used in this context: Lucretius has both in ii. 766 'ut mare, cum magni commorunt aequora uenti, / uertitur in canos candenti marmore fluctus'.
Critical Apparatus
14 freti Schrader: feri V
Editor’s Note
14. freti : Schrader's necessary correction of V's feri: even if the apposition Nereides, feri uultus, were possible, the adjective is clearly unsuitable, emersere is transitive, governing uultus, 'lifted their faces' (cf. Dirae 56 'monstra … emersere furenti corpora ponto', Manil. v. 198 'ex undis … sese emersit in astra'). The author of the Octavia may have had this in mind when he wrote (706) 'talis emersam freto / spumante Peleus coniugem accepit Thetim'.
Editor’s Note
gurgite : see on 65. 5.
Editor’s Note
15. monstrum, 'apparition': unlike the English 'monster' in modern use, monstrum has no implication of size. It is a word of religious language (mon(e)strum from the stem of moneo), first applied to an object which conveys a portent, as in Virg. Aen. iii. 59 monstra deum, then extended to other 'uncanny' things. In Horace, Od. i. 37. 21 Cleopatra is fatale monstrum; Virgil uses the word of the Trojan horse (Aen. ii. 245), of Io's gadfly (Georg. iii. 152), and (with mock solemnity) of the pests of the stack-yard (Georg. i. 185).
Editor’s Note
Nereidĕs : the Greek nominative plural; see on 3.
Editor’s Note
The spondaic ending perhaps represents the lingering looks of surprise.
Critical Apparatus
16 atque haud Bergk, alia atque Vahlen: atque X, om. O
Critical Apparatus
uidere V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Editor’s Note
16. ilia atque <haud> alia : Bergk's correction is the most likely ('on that day and no other'), although this appearance of the Nereids escorting a ship is by no means unparalleled in poetry: cf. Soph. O.C. 716–19 ἁ δ‎ʼ εὐήρετμος‎ … πλάτα‎ / θρώσκει, τῶν ἑκατομπόδων‎ / Νηρῄδων ἀκόλουθος‎, Eur. El. 433 κλειναὶ νᾶες‎ … πέμπουααι χόρους μετὰ Νηρῄδων‎. Vahlen's ilia, alia atque alia, which goes to the opposite extreme ('on that day and other succeeding days'), is pointless and obscure; 68. 152, haec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia, which suggested it, is neither.
Editor’s Note
17. oculis regularly adds emphasis to uidere: e.g. Ter. Hec. 863 'numquam ante hunc diem meis oculis eam uideram'.
Editor’s Note
18. nutricum tenus : the use of the genitive with the preposition tenus (explained by the fact that tenus was originally a noun) is not uncommon with plural substantives, even in prose where there is no question of metrical convenience (so Virg. Georg. iii. 53 crurum tenus, Cic. Arat. 83 lumborum tenus, Quint. xii. 2.17 aurium tenus, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. viii. 1. 2 Cumarum tenus): with singular substantives the ablative is normal. The use of nutrices for papillae is unparalleled and seems to have been suggested by the similar use of τίτθη‎.
Critical Apparatus
19 tum X, cum O
Editor’s Note
19. Peleus : with the characteristic compression of the style, Catullus does not mention that Peleus was on board the Argo. This romantic story of love at first sight between the mermaid and the mortal is found only here. In the usual form of the legend, as it is told by Apollonius (i. 558), Peleus is already the husband of Thetis and the father of Achilles when he goes with the Argo: in Valerius Flaccus (i. 130) the wedding scene appears on the Argo's décor and (i. 255 ff.) little Achilles is brought to see his father off. As for the courtship, in Homer (Il. xviii. 434) Thetis marries Peleus οὐκ ἐθέλουσα‎ and in Ovid's version (Met. xi. 221) Peleus, instructed by Jupiter to marry Thetis, has to overcome a series of Protean metamorphoses before he can secure her.
Editor’s Note
19 ff. The anaphora of tum (cf. 39–41, 63–65), an Alexandrian mannerism, is accompanied by another in the repetition of the name in different cases: for the first cf. Call. Hymn 4. 70–72 φεῦγε μὲν Ἀρκαδίη, φεῦγεν δ‎ʼ ὄρος ἱερὸν Αὔγης‎ / Παρθένιον, φεῦγεν δ‎ʼ ὁ γέρων μετόπισθε Φενειός‎, / φεῦγε δ‎ʼ ὄλη Πελοπηίς‎ …; for the second, Hymn 2. 44 ff. (Φοίβῳ‎ … Φοίβου‎ … Φοῖβον‎).
Editor’s Note
19. Thetidis … Thetidī : see on 3.
Critical Apparatus
20 tum m: cum V
Editor’s Note
20. despexīt hymenaeos : Catullus has this irregular lengthening in the fifth foot before the Greek word hymenaeus again at 62. 4 dicetur hymenaeus, 66. 11 auctus hymenaeo, clearly echoing a Greek rhythm (see Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 451); Virgil takes over the mannerism, Aen. x. 720 profugus hymenaeos, vii. 398 canit hymenaeos, and has similar examples of lengthening before hyacinthus (Ecl. 6. 53, Georg. iv. 137, Aen. xi. 69).
Critical Apparatus
21 tum Aldina: cum V
Critical Apparatus
sensit V: sanxit Pontanus
Editor’s Note
21. pater ipse : i.e. Jupiter (ipse diuum genitor in 27): so Virg. Georg. i. 121, 328, Aen. ii. 617.
Editor’s Note
sensit : 'judged': Pontanus's sanxit is unnecessary: for this use of sentire cf. Hor. C.S. 73.*
Editor’s Note
64. 21. This use of sentire is common in Cicero (e.g. Acad. i. 23, N.D. i. 27, Or. 195, Att. vii. 6. 2).
Critical Apparatus
22 seclorum r: seculorum V
Editor’s Note
22. The apostrophe belongs to the hymn-style : cf. Call. Hymn 1. 91–94 χαῖρε μέγα Κρονίδη πανυπέρτατε‎ … χαῖρε πάτερ, χαῖρ‎ʼ αὗθι‎.
Editor’s Note
nimis : 'very': see on 43. 4.
Editor’s Note
optato : cf. 31, 141, 328, 62. 30, 66. 79, all in contexts relating to love and marriage: so Virg. Aen. viii. 405 optatos amplexus, xi. 270 coniugium optatum, Prop. i. 14. 9.
Editor’s Note
saeclorum tempore : for the periphrasis cf. Prop. 1. 4. 7 'formosi temporis aetas', Tib. i. 8. 47 'primi temporis aetas'.
Critical Apparatus
23 gens Madvig
Critical Apparatus
matrum scholia Vergiliana: mater V (al. matre Rmg)
Editor’s Note
23 Scholia Veronensia ad Verg. aen. v. 80 Catullus: Saluete deum gens o bona matrum progenies saluete iter….
Editor’s Note
23. The manuscripts have the meaningless o bona mater: the quotation in the Verona scholia on Aen. v. 80 corrects the last word to matrum and adds half of the following line. Munro's iterumque iterumque bonarum and Peerlkamp's iterum salvete bonarum are equally possible supplements. For bona matrum bonarum progenies cf. 34. 5 'maximi / magna progenies Iouis': for iterum cf. Virg. Aen. v. 80 'salue sancte parens, iterum saluete recepti / nequiquam cineres animaeque umbraeque paternae' (so αὗθι‎ in Callim. quoted on 22 above).
  deum genus : cf. 61. 2 'Uraniae genus', Virg. Aen. vi. 792 'Augustus Caesar, diui genus': Catullus' phrase may have been suggested by Hesiod, W.D. 159 ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος‎.
Critical Apparatus
23b om. V: ex scholiis huc reuocauit Orioli
Editor’s Note
24. saepe … compellabo : the promise is not fulfilled, but it is a regular formula of the hymn-style from the Homeric hymns onwards: cf. Hom. Hymn 3. 546 αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ καὶ σεῖο καὶ ἄλλης μνήσομ‎ʼ ἀοιδῆς‎ (so in several other hymns), Theoc. 1. 144 χαίρετε πολλάκι, Μοῖσαι‎, / χαίρετ‎ʼ· ἐγὼ δ‎ʼ ὔμμιν καὶ ἐς ὔστερον ἄδιον ἀ̣σῶ‎, 17. 135 χαῖρε, ἄναξ Πτολεμαῖε, σέθεν δ‎ʼ ἐλὼ ἷσα καὶ ἄλλων‎ / μνάσομαι ἡμιθέων‎.
Critical Apparatus
25 tedis O, thetis X
Editor’s Note
25. teque adeo : adeo, as often, marks a climax: cf. Virg. Ecl. 4. 11 'teque adeo decus hoc aeui, te consule, inibit', Georg. i. 24 'tuque adeo' (addressed to Augustus at the end of a series of divinities).
Editor’s Note
eximie … aucte, 'blessed beyond others': cf. 66. 11 'nouo auctus hymenaeo'.
Editor’s Note
taedis, i.e. nuptiis, as in 302: Catullus is the first to use this metonymy, which becomes regular in later verse.
Editor’s Note
Thessaliae columen : for the metaphor cf. Plaut. Cas. 536 'senati columen', Cic. Verr. ii. 3. 176 'columen familiae', Hor. Od. ii. 17. 4 'Maecenas mearum / grande decus columenque rerum': so, in Greek, Hector is Tροίας κίων‎, Pind. OI. 2. 82.
Editor’s Note
26 f. ipse, / ipse : epanalepsis is a favourite device in this poem (as it is in Lucretius), sometimes as here (and in 321) emphatic, sometimes pathetic (61, 132, 403) or picturesque (259, 285). The device goes back to Homer (e.g. Od. i. 23, Il. ii. 849) and was cultivated by the Alexandrians (e.g. Call. Hymn 1. 33, 4. 118, Theoc. 9. 2).
Editor’s Note
27. suos … amores : for the personal use see on 10. 1. Jupiter's waiving of his claim in favour of a mortal was prompted by the prophetic warning of Prometheus (Aesch. P.V. 911 ff.)—or Themis (Pind. Isth. 8. 32 ff.)—that a son born to Thetis would be greater than his father.
Critical Apparatus
28 nereine Haupt: nectine V (al. neptine al. neutumne R, al. neptine mg)
Editor’s Note
28. Nereine : Haupt's correction of nectine is the most probable. Nereine does not occur elsewhere except in the late Greek poets Oppian and Quintus Smyrnaeus, but they no doubt had hellenistic precedent for it: the normal Latin form is Nerine (Virg. Ecl. 7. 37). Ellis's Neptunine is an illegitimate hybrid: the Greek suffix -ine is not uncommon in Latin but only attached to Greek names (Aeetine, Euenine).
Editor’s Note
tene Thetis tenuit : the question is a hellenistic device: so, e.g., Call. Hymn 3. 113. For tenuit cf. 45. 2, 72. 2.*
Editor’s Note
64. 28. tenuit: cf. Virg. Ecl. 1. 31 'dum me Galatea tenebat', Ov. Her. 2. 103 'iam te tenet altera coniunx', Prop. ii. 22. 37.
Critical Apparatus
29 tethys γ‎: thetis V
Editor’s Note
29. neptem : Oceanus and Tethys are the parents of Doris, mother of the Nereids,
Editor’s Note
30. The line may have been suggested by the line ascribed to Euphorion (fr. 122 Powell) ὠκεανός, τῷ πᾶσα περίρρυτος ἐνδέδεται χθών‎.
Critical Apparatus
31 optate ζ‎: optato V
Editor’s Note
31. quae … luces : i.e. the marriage-day (the 'poetic' plural is here, more clearly than anywhere else in Catullus, a metrical expedient): the relative forms a loose connexion with the idea of the preceding lines.
Editor’s Note
finito tempore : 'at the appointed time': for tempus finire cf. Livy xxxix. 17. 2 'diem certam se finituros', xlv. 12. 7 'die finita'.
Critical Apparatus
32 aduenere ζ‎η‎: adlenire V
Editor’s Note
33. laetanti : used adjectivally again in 221.
Critical Apparatus
35 Cieros Meineke, scyros η‎: siros O, syros, X
Editor’s Note
35. Cieros : the manuscript readings point to Scyros, but Scyros, an island lying out in the Aegean east of Euboea, seems out of place in this Thessalian list. The only possible explanation of its appearance here would be that Catullus, who shared the inaccuracy in matters of foreign geography to which all Latin poetry is prone (see Kroll, Studien z. Verständnis d. röm. Literatur, 293 ff.: cf. 324), was misled by the connexion of Scyros with the later episode in the story of Thetis and Achilles. (Achilles was concealed in Scyros by his mother in a vain attempt to prevent his going to the Trojan War.) Meineke's Cieros, the name of an old town in Thessaliotis (Strabo ix. 435) saves Catullus' geography: the mention of so obscure a place among the well-known names of these lines would be a piece of hellenistic erudition.
Editor’s Note
Pthiotica Tempe : Tempe, the valley of the Peneus between Olympus and Ossa (see on 285) is in the very north of Thessaly, far from Phthiotis, the southerly region of the country, but Catullus had precedent for his confusion in Callimachus (Hymn 4. 112 Πηνειὲ Φθιῶτα, τί νῦν ἀνέμοισιν ἐρίζεις‎;). For the spelling, cf. 211 Erectheum; Greek double aspirates were not preserved in Latin transliteration.
Critical Apparatus
36 graumonisque O, graiunonisque X: corr. Victorius
Critical Apparatus
moenia larissea θ‎: nicenis alacrissea (-isea X) V
Editor’s Note
36. Crannon and Laris(s)a were the two chief towns of Central Thessaly, lying north of Pharsalus.
Critical Apparatus
37 Pharsalum Pontanus: farsaliam V
Editor’s Note
37. Pharsalum : Pharsaliam is not impossible. Repetition of a word with change of quantity (Pharsăliam … Pharsālia) is an Alexandrian mannerism (e.g. Theoc. 6.19 τὰ μὴ κᾰλὰ κᾱλὰ πέφανται‎, 18. 51 Κύ̆πρις δὲ θεὰ Κύ̆πρις‎, Call. Hymn 4. 204 πέρᾱ πέρᾰ εἰς ἐμέ‎ cf. 62. 5), and, while there is no authority for the quantity Pharsălia, it might be supported by such novelties as Ovid's Leucŏsia and Crimĭsen (Λευκωσία‎ and Κριμῖσα‎ are the only forms known in Greek). Alternatively it would be possible to suppose that the -a- keeps its length and that the word as scanned is a trisyllable, i being treated as a consonant. But Pharsalia is nowhere else found for Pharsalus as the name of the town, whereas the combination with Crannon and Larissa, the absence of a preposition, and perhaps the verb coeunt, point to the name of a town here.
Editor’s Note
38. mollescunt : i.e. the skin hardened by the yoke grows soft again: here and in 42 the commonplace description of the deserted countryside (cf. Tib. ii. 1. 5–7, Ov. F. i. 665–6) is pursued with extravagant hyperbole.
Editor’s Note
39. humilis … uinea : these are vines growing low and not trained on trees (humilis is Varro's technical term, opposed to sublimis, R.R. i. 8. 1): the soil round them is hoed to loosen it and clear it of weeds (Colum. iv. 4. 3).
Editor’s Note
40. Prono … uomere, 'no ox tears up the clods with deep-driven share': cf. Virg. Georg. ii. 356 'presso exercere solum sub uomere'. The slow rhythm of the four spondees conveys the impression of effort, of the ox toiling along the furrow (for a similar effect cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 174, of the blacksmith Cyclopes, 'illi inter sese magna ui bracchia tollunt'): Catullus uses the same metrical device in 130 and 202, where it represents Ariadne's slow and halting cries.
Editor’s Note
41. frondatorum : the pruners thin the foliage which is keeping off the sunlight (Virg. Georg. i. 156 'ruris opaci / falce premes umbras', Colum. v. 6. 17) and at the same time get leaves for fodder.
Editor’s Note
42. squalida : 'a scaly rust spreads over the abandoned ploughs'.
Critical Apparatus
43 at cod. Parisinus lat. 8234: ad V
Editor’s Note
43. at turns the reader's eye to the other side of the picture: cf. 58, 251. For the postponement of at see on 23. 7.
Editor’s Note
ipsius : i.e. the master, Peleus himself: cf. Virg. Ecl. 3. 3 'ipse Neaeram / dum fouet', Ter. And. 360 'ipsus tristis': see on 3. 7, and cf. 114. 6, 115. 7.
Editor’s Note
quacumque … recessit : 'as far as the sumptuous palace stretched back': recessit conveys the idea of a vista of a series of rooms or courts: cf. Pliny, Ep. ii. 17. 21 'contra parietem medium zotheca recedit'.
Editor’s Note
45. soliis … mensae : dative: 'the thrones have white ivory, the table glittering cups': so Virg. Aen. vi. 603 'lucent genialibus altis / aurea fulcra toris'.
Editor’s Note
46. gaudet : ' is gay': only here in this use, but there are similar uses of ridere (Hor. Od. iv. 11. 6 'ridet argento domus') and γελᾶν‎ (Hom. Il. xix. 362 γέλασσε δὲ πᾶσα περὶ χθὼν‎ / χαλκοῦ ὑπὸ στεροπῆς‎).
Editor’s Note
gaza : first here and in Lucr. ii. 37, Cic. Leg. Man. 66 (66 b.c.), a Persian word borrowed from Greek.
Editor’s Note
47. puluinar … geniale : Catullus thinks in Roman terms of the lectus genialis which stood in the atrium at and after a Roman wedding: for a hero and a goddess the lectus becomes a puluinar, the seat provided ceremonially at a lectisternium for the gods, represented by their images.
Editor’s Note
48. Indo … dente : i.e. ivory: for the construction cf. Virg. Aen. v. 663 'pictas abiete puppis', xi. 890 'duros obice postes'. The couch is inlaid with ivory (cf. 61. 108) and covered with a purple cloth (for the white-red contrast cf. 309, 61. 9 f. n., 187): cf. Varro, Sat. 447 Büch. 'in eborato lecto ac purpureo peristromate', Hor. Sat. ii. 6.102 'rubro ubi cocco / tinctasuper lectos canderet uestis eburnos', Suet. Jul. 84 'lectus eburnus auro ac purpura stratus'.
Editor’s Note
49. conchyli purpura fuco : 'covered by a purple cloth steeped in the red dye of the conchylium'. Strictly purpura and conchylium apply to animal colouring matter, the product of the molluscs of these names (for an account of them and of the technical processes see Pliny, N.H. ix. 125–38), fucus to a vegetable colouring, the product of archil (the source of litmus in modern times): technically the latter was used as a base for the former (Plin. N.H. xxvi. 103 'fucus marinus conchyliis substernitur'). But they are regularly identified in Latin poetry as they are here. Purpura (πορφύρα‎) is first the shell-fish itself, then the colour of the dye produced from it (Virg. Georg. iv. 275 'uiolae sublucet purpura nigrae') or (as here and in Prop. iv. 3. 51) the cloth dyed with it.
Editor’s Note
50–266. The description of the coverlet, portraying the story of Ariadne.
Editor’s Note
50. uariata : for uariare of embroidery cf. Val. Flacc. iii. 12 'uestes I quas … picto … uariauerat auro'; so of painting, Prop. ii. 6. 33 'istis olim uariabant tecta figuris'. See on uario 61. 87.
Editor’s Note
51. uirtutes : 'deeds of prowess': cf. 348, 357, 68. 90, Virg. Aen. i. 565–6 'quis Troiae nesciat urbem / uirtutesque uirosque?'
Critical Apparatus
die ε‎: dia OR, dya G
Editor’s Note
52. fluentisono : the compound occurs only here: cf. 125, 320 clarisonus, 263 raucisonus.
Editor’s Note
Diae : the name is already in Homer's account of Ariadne (Od. xi. 321), where Dia is an island on which Ariadne was killed by Artemis on her way from Crete to Athens. By Alexandrian times it had been identified with Naxos: Callim. fr. 601 Pf. ἐν Δίῃ‎· τὸ γὰρ ἔσκε παλαίερον οὔνομα Νάξῳ‎.
Editor’s Note
53. cum classe : classis is not in itself a plural notion and can refer to an expedition consisting of one ship (Hor. Od. iii. 11. 48, Virg. Aen. vi. 334 with Servius' note), but puppes in 172 seems to imply that Theseus had more than one.
Critical Apparatus
54 adriana V: corr. η‎
Editor’s Note
54. furores : of the passion of love as in 94, 124, 50. 11 (in-domitus furore), 68. 129; cf. Virg. Aen. i. 658 ff. 'ut … Cupido … furentem / incendat reginam atque ossibus implicet ignem', iv. 101 'ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem'.
Critical Apparatus
55 quae uisit uisere Vossius: -que sui tui se V
Editor’s Note
55. uisit uisere : Voss's palmary emendation: as at 211 uisere provides a convenient metrical alternative to uidere.
Critical Apparatus
56 tum X, tunc O
Editor’s Note
56. utpote … quae : 'no wonder, since she …': cf. 67. 43; utpote qui is a prosaic construction: utpote is found elsewhere in verse only in Horace's satiric hexameters.
Editor’s Note
57. sola : 'deserted' as in 154, 184: so Virg. Aen. xi. 545 'solorum nemorum', 569 'solis montibus'.
Editor’s Note
58. immemor is again applied to Theseus in 123, 135, 248. In one version of the story Theseus was represented as having been visited with amnesia by Dionysus (schol. on Theoc. 2. 48). But immemor regularly implies not mere absentmindedness but indifference to one's obligations, ingratitude, or treachery (cf. 30. 1).
Editor’s Note
at : see on 43.
Editor’s Note
pellit uada remis : note the rare cadence produced by the strong caesura in the fifth foot, which extends the conflict between ictus and word accent to that foot, in which they normally coincide. (On Virgil's use of it see Norden, Aeneid vi, p. 446.) The unusual cadence and the series of dactyls may perhaps represent the splashing of the oars, as Kroll suggests.
Editor’s Note
60. ex alga : from the seaweed at the edge of the shore: cf. 168.
Editor’s Note
ocellis : for the diminutive, an intimacy of common speech conveying an emotional overtone, see n. on 3. 18. In admitting it to high poetry Catullus makes it a means of enhancing the sentimental, romantic treatment of the theme: of nouns he has also lectulus (88), munusculum (103), labellum (104), of adjectives frigidulus (131), aridulus (316), languidulus (331). The author of the Ciris, writing in the same manner, has labellum (496) and frigidulus (251, 348). But the innovation had a short life: in the narrative verse of the Augustans and their successors it is abandoned (see A. S. F. Gow, C.Q. xxvi [1932], 150 ff.).
Critical Apparatus
61 saxea rmg: saxa V
Critical Apparatus
eheu Bergk, euoe Aldina: heue V
Editor’s Note
61. bacchantis : Ariadne is wild as a maenad but silent and motionless.
Editor’s Note
prospicit : see on 26 f.: the pathetic repetition makes Bergk's eheu certain.
Critical Apparatus
62 et rmg: con O, quid G et R latet
Editor’s Note
62. fluctuat : for the metaphor cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 19 'magno curarum fluctuat aestu', Lucr. vi. 34 'uoluere curarum tristes in pectore fluctus'.
Editor’s Note
63. flauo : cf. 98, 66. 62, 68. 130. Fair hair conventionally belongs to the heroes and heroines of legend, even to Sidonia Dido (Virg. Aen. iv. 590: for a list of references see Pease's note there).
  mitram : the mitra was a cap or bonnet with strings under the chin (redimicula, Virg. Aen. ix. 616) associated with the East and particularly with Lydia. subtilem has its literal sense of 'fine-woven'.
Critical Apparatus
64 contenta O
Editor’s Note
64–65. contecta … pectus, … uincta papillas : this poetic idiom probably had a native origin in the use of a verb in the middle voice (expressing an action done in relation to the agent himself) with a direct object. Traces of a transitive middle survive in a few expressions such as Hor. Sat. ii. 7. 38 'nasum nidore supinor', A.P. 302 'purgor bilem', and a middle form has persisted in the participles of a few verbs whose sense is essentially middle (gauisus, pransus, cenatus). In contecta pectus, vincta papillas, and similar phrases the object is a part of the agent's own body: so Ennius 400 V. 'succincti corda machaeris', Virg. Ecl. 6. 68 'crinis ornatus', 7. 32 'suras euincta cothurno', Georg. iv. 337 'caesariem effusae' (where the verb plainly cannot be passive), Aen. iv. 518 'exuta pedem', xi. 877 'percussae pectora'. (In others the object is something external to the agent: so Virg. Aen. ii. 510 'inutile ferrum cingitur', 392 'galeam … induitur'.) But Catullus' restrictus membra (296) or Virgil's percussa mentem (Georg. iv. 357) cannot be explained thus: the participial 'middle' idiom seems to have become confused with a much wider poetic use taken over from Greek, that of the accusative 'of respect' with verbs, active or passive, and adjectives.
Editor’s Note
uelatum repeats the idea contained in contecta: similarly in Tib. i. 6. 67 'quamuis non uitta ligatos / impediat crines', ligatos repeats the idea in impediat.
Editor’s Note
65 Isidorus, etym. xix. 33. 3 (strophium) de quo ait Cinna 'strofio lactantes cincta papillas'.
Editor’s Note
65. tereti : see on 314.
Critical Apparatus
66 delapsa e ζ‎η‎: delapse O, delapso G, delapso e R
Editor’s Note
66 f. quae … alludebant : the verb is used of the sea again in Cic. N.D. ii. 100 'mare terram appetens litoribus adludit', Ov. Met. iv. 342, Stat. Theb. ix. 336: Val. Flacc. vi. 665 repeats the transitive use.
Editor’s Note
67. ipsius : their mistress's feet: ipse, as often, marks the central figure of the picture.
Critical Apparatus
68 sed ζ‎η‎, sic Vahlen: si V
Critical Apparatus
tum bis] tamen O
Editor’s Note
68. sed neque tum … neque tum : the same anaphora (cf. 19–21) in Ciris 116.
Editor’s Note
68 f. mitrae … uicem curans : 'not troubling on account of …': the editors quote Cic. Att. viii. 2. 2 'quoius ego uicem doleo', Fam. xii. 23. 3 'tuam uicem saepe doleo', Livy xliv. 3. 5 'sollicito consuli … eorum uicem'.
Editor’s Note
69. ex te … Theseu : the apostrophe was developed by hellenistic poetry as a device to give a subjective, personal quality to the narrative, and thence was adopted by the neoterici: thereafter it becomes a regular part of the technique of Latin verse (Norden, Aeneid vi, pp. 122, 126). Cf. 253, 299: see also on 4. 13.
Editor’s Note
69 f. pectore … animo … mente : no distinction is to be drawn; the words reinforce one another.
Critical Apparatus
71 a] ha O, ah X
Editor’s Note
71–72 citat sub uoce 'externauit' Nonius p. 154 L.
Editor’s Note
71. externauit : externare and consternare are both compounds of an intensive verb in -are corresponding to sternere as, for example, (pro)fligare corresponds to (af)fligere: but the Romans themselves probably connected externare with externus and explained it as 'put beside oneself'.
Editor’s Note
a misera : for the exclamation cf. Calvus, fr. 9 M. 'a uirgo infelix: herbis pasceris amaris'.
Editor’s Note
72. Erycina : Venus, who had an old-established cult, with a famous temple, on Mount Eryx in west Sicily: the cult was familiar in Rome and a temple of Venus Erycina was built there in 181 b.c.
Editor’s Note
serens : 'planting': the verb is not confined to sowing seed; cf. Hor. Od. i. 18. 1 'nullam, Vare, sacra uite prius seueris arborem', Cic. Rep. iii. 16 'Transalpinas gentis oleam et uitem serere non sinimus'. For the metaphor cf. Soph. Ajax 1005 ἀνἰας μοι κατασπείρας φθίνεις‎.
Editor’s Note
curas : of the sorrows of love: cf. 68. 18, 51.
Critical Apparatus
73 ferox quo ex Italos secutus Lachmann (quo η‎): feroxque et V
Editor’s Note
73. ilia tempestate … quo ex tempore : for tempestas, 'time', cf. 66. 11 qua tempestate: by Cicero's day it was a poetical archaism which he was prepared to allow occasionally in prose (de Or. iii. 153; he uses it himself in de Div. i. 75); Sallust and Livy both favour it. The repetition of tempestate by its synonym tempore in the relative clause is a simple instance of the idiom discussed on 96. 3 (doloredesiderio); but we should expect illa ex tempestatequo tempore, 'from the time at which' (cf. 35. 13 quo temporeex eo).
Editor’s Note
74. curuis … litoribus : an epic phrase: cf. Accius fr. 570 R. curuum litus. Piraeus was the harbour of Athens.
Critical Apparatus
75 cortinia V: corr. Pall.
Critical Apparatus
templa ε‎, 'alibi tecta legitur' Parth.: tempta V
Editor’s Note
75. iniusti : so Minos is ὀλοόφρων‎ in Homer, Od. xi. 322, ἄγριος καὶ χαλεπὸς καὶ ἄδικος‎ in [Plato], Minos 318d.
Editor’s Note
Gortynia : Minos' capital was at Cnossus (Od. xix. 178), not at Gortyn, and no stress is to be put on the adjective: Catullus finds Gortynia a convenient adjective for 'Cretan', as Virgil does in Aen. xi. 773 spiculaGortynia.
  templa : from its original meaning of a space ritually marked out, in the sky or on the ground, for purposes of augury, templum comes to be used on the one hand of any sacred enclosure or building (of a palace, as here, in Ennius, Andromache 92 V. 'o Priami domus, / saeptum altisono cardine templum') and on the other generally of a region, abode, or seat (66. 63 'templa deum'; so in Plaut. M.G. 413 'me in locis Neptuniis templisque turbulentis / seruauit', and often in Lucretius, e.g. i. 120 'Acherusia templa', v. 1436 'mundi templum', v. 948 'siluestria templa Nympharum').
Editor’s Note
76. perhibent : see on l. 1.
Critical Apparatus
77 cum androgeanee (-ne O) V: -oneae η‎, cum del. Calph.
Editor’s Note
77. Androgeoneae … caedis : 'the murder of Androgeon': for the use of the adjective see on 368. Minos' son Androgeon (Prop. ii. 1. 62 uses the same Latin form: only Ἀνδρογέως‎ is found in Greek) met his death while he was on a visit to Attica: Minos held the Athenians responsible, attacked their city, and imposed his terms on them: for the story cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 20 ff. (a description of Daedalus' carvings on the temple of Apollo at Cumae) 'in foribus letum Androgeo, tum pendere poenas / Cecropidae iussi—miserum—septena quotannis / corpora natorum: stat ductis sortibus urna'.
Editor’s Note
78. electos : need not refer to the choosing of the victims by lot (see Virgil quoted above): cf. 4 lecti iuuenes, 36. 6 electissima.
Editor’s Note
79 f. Three consecutive σπονδειάζοντες‎ (see on l. 3) occur in Latin only here: but Catullus had hellenistic precedent (e.g. Theoc. 13. 42–44, Call. H. 3. 222–4, Apoll. iv. 1191–3, Aratus 953–5, Euphorion, fr. 34 Powell).
Editor’s Note
79. Cecropiam : again in 83, 172: a convenient equivalent for Athens or Attica (from its legendary King Cecrops) which hellenistic poets had discovered (e.g. Call. Hymn 3. 227, 4. 315, Apoll. i. 95).
Editor’s Note
dapem : daps (Catullus has the rare singular again in 304) is a solemn, religious word, originally used of a sacrificial meal.
Critical Apparatus
80 moenia] incenia O
Editor’s Note
80. angusta : the συνοικισμός‎ of Attica credited to Theseus was still to come: Athens was still small and the sacrifice of its youth was the more felt.
Critical Apparatus
82 prohicere O, proiicere X
Editor’s Note
82. proicere optauit : 'chose to sacrifice': cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 435 'lucemque perosi / proiecere animas'.
Editor’s Note
potius quam … portarentur : for the construction cf. Plaut. Aul. 11 'inopemque optauit potius eum relinquere / quam eum thesaurum commonstraret', Ter. And. 797 'sese inhoneste optauit parere hic diuitias / potius quam in patria honeste pauper uiueret', Cic. Tusc. ii. 52 'perpessus est omnia potius quam conscios delendae tyrannidis indicaret', Nepos Eum. 11. 4 'cur non in proelio cecidisti potius quam in potestatem inimici uenires?'
Editor’s Note
83. funera … nec funera : 'living corpses': the phrase is constructed on the model of such Greek expressions as γάμος ἄγαμος, πόλις ἄπολις, χάρις ἄχαρις, δῶρα ἄδωρα‎. Cicero ventures on insepulta sepultura (Phil. 1. 5, of Caesar's funeral, which was no funeral) and quotes innuptis nuptiis (γάμοις ἀγάμοις‎) from a tragic poet (de Or. iii. 219), but Latin does not lend itself to the formation of such negative compounds. For nec in the sense of nec tamen ('corpses and yet not corpses') cf. Ov. Met. viii. 231 'pater infelix nec iam pater', Carm. Epig. 428. 6 'nunc umbra nec umbra'. The same notion is otherwise expressed by Manilius, v. 548 (of Andromeda) 'uirginis et uiuae rapitur sine funere funus', and Apul. Met. iv. 34 (of Psyche) 'uiuum producitur funus'. For funus = νεκρός‎ cf. Virg. Aen. ix. 491 'lacerum funus'; in prose Varro, R.R. i. 4. 5 '(cum) omnes domus repletae essent aegrotis ac funeribus'.
Editor’s Note
84. ita : 'that being so' refers back to the circumstances just described, in this case Theseus' decision ('in pursuance of that purpose'): but atque ita (cf. 315: similarly itaque in 63. 6, 35), like καὶ οὔτως‎, is often simply a continuative formula equivalent to our 'and then' (cf. Hor. Sat. i. 3. 101, Ov. Her. 18. 115).
Editor’s Note
naue … nitens : cf. Prop. iv. 6. 63 'illa petit Nilum cymba male nixa fugaci'.
Editor’s Note
85. magnanimum : a conventional epic epithet, representing μεγάθυμος‎.
Editor’s Note
86. cupido … lumine : 'eyes', as lumina in 92, 233; for the singular cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 754 'uestigia … lumine lustro', Ov. Her. 16. 37 'ante tuos animo uidi quam lumine uultus'. As Kroll points out, love at first sight is de rigueur in hellenistic poetry: cf. Theoc. 2. 82 ὣς ἴδον, ὣς ἐμάνην‎, Apoll. iii. 286 ff., Ciris 130 'ni Scylla nouo correpta furore / … o nimium cupidis Minoa inhiasset ocellis', Prop. iv. 4. 21 ff. 'obstupuit regis facie et regalibus armis / interque oblitas excidit urna manus'.
Editor’s Note
87. odores : so in Homer, Od. iv. 121 Helen has a θάλαμος θυώδης‎.
Editor’s Note
88. alebat : she grows up in the women's quarters, in the inner part of the house, under the charge of her mother, Pasiphae.
Critical Apparatus
89 eurotae 1472: europe V
Critical Apparatus
praecingunt Baehrens, progignunt θ‎: pergignunt V
Critical Apparatus
mirtos O, mirtus X (al. -tos R)
Editor’s Note
89. quales … myrtus : the conventional comparison (see on 61. 21) is enlivened, in a characteristically Alexandrian way, by the particularity of a proper name, Eurotas, as it is by Asia in 61. 22. Cf. 105.
Editor’s Note
praecingunt : Baehrens's correction for V's pergignunt: but progignunt (cf. 1 prognatae) is perhaps more likely.
Editor’s Note
90. distinctos : i.e. differentiated, with much the same sense as uario in 61. 87: for the plural colores used of the gay colours of flowers cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 306 'ante nouis rubeant quam prata coloribus', Prop. i. 2. 9 'aspice quos summittat humus formosa colores', Tib. i. 4. 29 'quam cito purpureos deperdit terra colores', Culex 70 'florida cum tellus gemmantis picta per herbas / uere notat dulci distincta coloribus arua', Val. Flacc. vi. 492 'lilia per uarios lucent uelut alba colores'.
Editor’s Note
91. declinauit : cf. Ov. Met. vii. 86–88 'in uultu ueluti tum denique uiso / lumina fixa tenet … nec se declinat ab illo'.
Editor’s Note
92. concepit corpore flammam : the fire of love is thought of as physical: cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 356 'toto percepit pectore flammam' (with a similar alliteration), iv. 101 'ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem', viii. 389 f. 'accepit solitam flammam notusque medullas / intrauit calor et labefacta per ossa cucurrit'.
Editor’s Note
93. medullis : see on 45. 16.
Editor’s Note
atque : for the postponement of the connective see on 23. 7.
Editor’s Note
94 f. heu … sancte puer : for the apostrophe cf. Apoll. iv. 445 σχέτλι‎ʼ Ἔρως, μέγα πῆμα, μέγα στύγος ἀνθρώποισιν‎, / ἐκ σέθεν οὐλόμεναί τ‎ʼ ἔριδες στοναχαί τε γόοι τε‎.
Editor’s Note
94. furores : see on 54.
Editor’s Note
95. sanete puer : see on 34. 22, 36. 3: cf. Tib. ii. 1. 81 (to Amor) 'sancte, ueni dapibus festis sed pone sagittas'.
Editor’s Note
misces : cf. 68. 18 'quae dulcem curis miscet amaritiem'.
Critical Apparatus
96 quaeque (Io) β‎: quod neque O, quique X
Critical Apparatus
golgos Hermolaus Barbarus teste Mureto, teste Statio Petrus Bembus: cholcos O, colchos X
Editor’s Note
96. Golgos … Idalium : see on 36. 12: the line looks as if it were suggested by Theoc. 15. 100 δέσποιν‎ʼ ἅ Γόλγως τε καὶ‎ ʼΙδάλιον ἐφίλησας‎.
Editor’s Note
98. in flauo … hospite : for flauus cf. 63. For in ('over') used of a personal object of emotion, cf. 119, 22. 17, 45. 23, 61. 97, Ter. Eun. 567 'in hac commotus sum', Hor. Od. i. 17. 19 'laborantes in uno / Penelopen uitreamque Circen', Prop. i. 13. 7 'perditus in quadam tardis pallescere curis / incipis', Ov. A.A. i. 732 'pallidus in lenta Naide Daphnis erat', Am. i. 9. 33 'ardet in abducta Briseide magnus Achilles', Met. vii. 21 'quid in hospite, regia uirgo, / ureris?'
Editor’s Note
99. languenti : 'fainting'; see on 219.
Critical Apparatus
100 quanto] quam tum Faernus
Editor’s Note
100. fulgore expalluit auri : see on 81. 4.
Editor’s Note
quanto : if the manuscript reading is right, quanto must be taken as ablative of measure of comparison with magis, 'how much more'. But Faernus's quam tum (quam with saepe, 'how often') may be right: the corruption would be easily explained by assimilation to the preceding line.
Editor’s Note
101. monstrum : i.e. the Minotaur: see on 15.
Critical Apparatus
102 oppeteret X
Editor’s Note
102. praemia laudis : i.e. reward consisting in glory: Cicero has the same phrase Mil. 81 'id fateri ex quo etiam praemia laudis essent petenda'; so Tusc. i. 34 'mercedem gloriae'. The line is a reminiscence of Apoll. iv. 205 ἠὲ κατηφείην ἤ καὶ μέγα κῦδος ἀρέσθαι‎.
Editor’s Note
appeteret is clearly required: for mortem appetere of a voluntary death cf. Sen. Ep. 24. 23, Suet. Nero 2. 3.
Editor’s Note
103. non ingrata tamen : in spite of her fears (tamen) the gifts she promised were not without return or promised ineffectually. frustra reinforces ingrata as nequiquam reinforces uanis in 111; cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 101 'sed quid ego haec autem nequiquam ingrata reuoluo?'. For ingrata see on 73. 3.
Editor’s Note
103 f. munuscula … labello : see on 60.
Critical Apparatus
104 succepit Statius (subscepit Laetus): succendit V
Editor’s Note
104. succepit uota : the manuscripts read succendit; uota succendere is an improbable phrase for making a burnt offering which has been vowed, and in any case a reference to the promise, not to the discharge of it, is needed here. Statius's succepit is probable: Ovid has 'uota publica suscipimus' Met. vii. 450, and the archaic form of the compound is preserved several times elsewhere (though always with the literal sense, 'take up'): e.g. Virg. Aen. vi. 248 'cruorem / succipiunt pateris', Prop. iv. 9. 36 'caua succepto flumine palma'. The early correction suspendit would mean 'let her prayers hang irresolute', 'left them half spoken' (cf. Lucr. v. 1069 'suspensis dentibus' of a dog's teeth half closed in play, Quint. x. 7. 22 'suspensa ac velut dubitans oratio'), reinforced by tacito—a neat phrase but palaeographically less likely.
Critical Apparatus
105 uelut] uult O
Editor’s Note
105–11. The simile of the falling tree has its prototype in Homer (e.g. Il. v. 560 ff., xiii. 389 ff.) and in Apollonius (iii. 967 ff., iv. 1680 ff., quoted on 108): here as in 89 Catullus uses the Alexandrian device of particularity to add colour and life to the image: the falling tree is on the summit of Taurus, the great massif which closes the central plateau of Asia Minor on the south. On Horace's use of the same device see Heinze on Od. i. 1. 14.
Editor’s Note
105. brachia : cf. Virg. Georg. ii. 296 'late ramos et brachia tendens': but the word is in ordinary use as a technical term of forestry.
Critical Apparatus
106 cornigeram V: corr. θ‎
Critical Apparatus
sudanti rmg: fundanti V
Editor’s Note
106. conigeram : coniger occurs only here, but Virgil has conifer, Aen. iii. 680.
Editor’s Note
sudanti cortice : of resin here, as of amber in Virg. Ecl. 8. 54 'pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricae'.
Editor’s Note
107. indomitus turbo : 'ungovernable'; the whirlwind has no control over itself.
  contorquens … robur : 'wrenching the trunk': cf. Virg. Georg. i. 481 (of the Po) 'insano contorquens uortice siluas'. For robur cf. Aen. iv. 441 (in another tree simile) 'annoso ualidam cum robore quercum', Georg. ii. 64 'solido de robore myrtus'.
Editor’s Note
108. eruit : the pause after the first foot perhaps represents the sudden 'give'.
Editor’s Note
illa procul, &c. : the change of subject is regular in the epic simile, e.g. Apoll. iv. 1682 ff.:
Editor’s Note
exturbata : a strong word, 'flung out roots and all'.
Editor’s Note
procul need not imply a great distance, as is clearly shown by such Virgilian instances as Ecl. 6. 16 'serta procul ('to one side') tantum capiti delapsa iacebant', Georg. iv. 424 'ipsa procul nebulis obscura resistit', Aen. vi. 651 'arma procul currusque uirum miratur inanis'.
Critical Apparatus
109 late quaeuis cumque Ellis: lateque cum eius V
Critical Apparatus
obuia O, omnia al. obuia X
Editor’s Note
109. quaeuis cumque : V's lateque cum eius is unmetrical and meaningless. Ellis's quaeuiscumque is weak and pedestrian (the only parallel forms are cuiusuiscumque in Lucr. iii. 388 and quouiscumque in Mart. xiv. 1. 13), but nothing more plausible has been proposed. Lachmann's late qua est impetus obuia and Munro's lateque comeis obit obuia are both unattractive.
Editor’s Note
110. saeuum : 'laid low the savage creature': for the unusual substantival use cf. 63. 85 ferus. Perhaps, like the next line, it comes from a Greek original and represents τὸν ἄγριον‎.
Editor’s Note
111. 'tossing his horns ineffectually to the insubstantial breezes': a translation of the line quoted by Cic. Att. viii. 5.1, perhaps from Callimachus' Hecale, πολλὰ μάτην κεράεσσιν ἐς ἠέρα θυμήναντα‎. For uanis cf. Lucan iv. 726 'caput uanas serpentis in auras / effusae'.
Editor’s Note
113. regens : 'guiding': cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 30 (of Daedalus in the labyrinth) 'caeca regens filo uestigia'.
Critical Apparatus
114 laberinthis O, -theis X
Editor’s Note
115. tecti … error : 'the untraceable maze of the building (i.e. the labyrinth) baffle him'; for inobseruabilis cf. Virg. Aen. ix. 392 'uestigia retro / obseruata legit'. The rhythm of the line, with its two polysyllables and the weak caesura in the third foot, is clearly intended to echo the sense. Virgil has the phrase in mind twice, Aen. vi. 27 'hic labor ille domus et inextricabilis error', Aen. v. 588–91 'fertur labyrinthus … / mille uiis habuisse dolum qua signa sequendi / falleret indeprensus et irremeabilis error'.
Critical Apparatus
116 a r: cum V
Editor’s Note
116. sed quid ego : the poet interrupts himself to justify his παράλειψις‎, passing rapidly over a part of his story: so Apoll. i. 648; ἀλλὰ τί μύθους‎ / Αἰθαλίδεω χρειώ με διηνεκέως ἀγορεύειν‎; The digression from the primum carmen began at 76 with the story of Theseus' coming to Crete: he now returns to the deserted Ariadne in Naxos.
Editor’s Note
117. ut, 'how'.
Editor’s Note
genitoris filia : the juxtaposition emphasizes the unnaturalness of her act: Kroll quotes Cic. Deiot. 2 'qui nepos auum in capitis discrimen adduxerit'.
Editor’s Note
118. consanguineae … matris : Minos and Pasiphae had four daughters: the reference is presumably to Phaedra, the best known of Ariadne's three sisters; in the famous picture by Polygnotus at Delphi described by Pausanias (x. 29. 3) she was represented along with Ariadne.
Critical Apparatus
119 ingnata V (ignata R)
Critical Apparatus
laetabatur Lachmann: leta V
Editor’s Note
119. deperdita : the participle of deperire in the idiomatic sense 'love to distraction' (35. 12, 100. 2): for in applied to the object of affection see on 98.
Critical Apparatus
120 praeoptarit Statius (-ret iam Laetus, -uit θ‎): portaret V
Editor’s Note
120. praeoptarit : with synizesis of the first two syllables, as in comedy (e.g. Plaut. Trin. 648, Ter. Hec. 532): the verb does not occur in later verse (in which prae in composition is shortened before a following vowel).
Critical Apparatus
121 ut om. O
Critical Apparatus
uecta Rmg: necta V
Critical Apparatus
rati Passerat: ratis V
Editor’s Note
121. Diae : see on 52.
Critical Apparatus
122 uenerit add. Lachmann
Critical Apparatus
ratis …, / aut ut eam placido Laetus
Critical Apparatus
deuinctam Laetus, deuictam η‎: deuincta V
Editor’s Note
122. deuinctam lumina : see on 64.
Editor’s Note
eam : the forms of is are rare in verse after Lucretius (see Axelson, Unpoetische Wörter, 70): Catullus has eum 63. 43, earum 63. 54 (if the text is sound), ei 82. 3, eius 84. 5.
Critical Apparatus
123 inmemori G (al. nemori add. g)
Editor’s Note
123. immemori : see on 58.
Editor’s Note
124. perhibent : see on 1.
Editor’s Note
ardenti corde furentem : for furentem see on 54: for ardenti cf. 197, Virg. Aen. iv. 101 'ardet amans Dido'.
Critical Apparatus
125 e X, ex O
Editor’s Note
125. clarisonas : Catullus has the compound again in 320, Cicero in Arat. 280 'e clarisonis auris Aquilonis'.
Critical Apparatus
126 tristem ζ‎: tristes V
Editor’s Note
126 ff. conscendere … procurrere : the present infinitives represent the imperfect of oratio recta.
Critical Apparatus
127 in add. ζ‎η‎
Critical Apparatus
protenderet R: pretenderet V
Editor’s Note
127. aciem … protenderet : 'stretch her gaze over the swell of the ocean'; cf. 63. 56 'cupit ipsa pupula ad te sibi derigere aciem', Cic. Acad. ii. 80 'intendi acies longius non potest'.
Editor’s Note
uastus : see on 156.
Editor’s Note
129. tegmina surae : i.e. her chiton (nudatae is proleptic): cf. Apoll. iii. 874 ἄν δὲ χιτῶνας‎ / λεπταλέους λευκῆς ἐπιγουνίδος ἄχρις ἄειρον‎.
Critical Apparatus
130 hoc R (X ?)
Editor’s Note
130. extremis : because she is moribunda: cf. 188, Prop. iii. 7. 55 'flens tamen extremis dedit haec mandata querellis'.
Editor’s Note
131. udo … ore : ablative of attendant circumstance, 'with tear-stained face'.
Editor’s Note
frigidulos : for the diminutive see on 60.
Critical Apparatus
132 patris O
Critical Apparatus
auectam rg (al. auectam m): auertam V
Editor’s Note
132–201. Ariadne's lament. She begins with reproaches against Theseus (132–63): then surveys her own desperate situation (164–87): and ends with a prayer to heaven for vengeance (188–201).
Editor’s Note
The first part is reminiscent of Medea's lament in Euripides (Medea 165 ff., 670 ff.) and in Apollonius (iv. 355 ff.); in its turn it has been used by Virgil (Aen. iv. 305 ff.) and Ovid (Heroides 10, Fasti iii. 459 ff.).
Editor’s Note
132. sicine : in an indignant, disillusioned question—'you have left me like this, have you?'—as often in comedy: see on 77. 3.
Editor’s Note
patriis : i.e. the altars of her ancestral gods, as in Virg. Aen. xi. 269 'inuidisse deos patriis ut redditus aris / coniugium optatum et pulchram Calydona uiderem'.
Critical Apparatus
133 in om. O
Critical Apparatus
134 discendens G
Editor’s Note
134. neglecto numine diuum : 'indifferent to the will of the gods', by whom he had sworn.
Critical Apparatus
135 a] ha O, ah X
Editor’s Note
135. portas : he carries a freight of broken promises: there is a curious parallel in Demosthenes, de Falsa Leg. 220 ὑμεῖς τὴν ἄραν καὶ τὴν ἐπιορκίαν οἰκάδε ἐσηνέγκατε‎.
Editor’s Note
deuota : 'under curse': deuouere is to make over to the gods of the underworld: cf. Hor. Od. iii. 4. 27 'deuota arbos', Epod. xvi. 9 'deuoti sanguinis aetas'.
Critical Apparatus
136 nullaue V: corr. β‎
Critical Apparatus
crudeles … mentes V: corr. rmg
Critical Apparatus
138 mirescere O, mitescere X: corr. Calph.
Editor’s Note
138. uellet miserescere : 'was prepared to pity', 'felt like pitying'.
Critical Apparatus
139 blanda O, nobis X
Editor’s Note
139. at non haec : the same formula in Nonnus xlvii. 368–9 (spoken by Ariadne), οὐ τάδε μοι κατέλεξεν ἐμὸν μίτον εἰσέτι πάλλων‎, / οὐ τάδε μοι κατέλεξε παρ‎ʼ ἡμετέρῳ λαβυρίνθω̣‎, indicates that Catullus' words had the same Alexandrian original behind them (cf. 160).
Editor’s Note
blanda : since the anaphora non haec … non haec requires that mihi belong to the first clause, nobis is not wanted. On the other hand uoce needs an epithet in this context and blanda uoce is a familiar combination (Ennius 50 V. blanda uoce uocabam, Ov. A.A. i. 703, Virg. Aen. i. 670 blandis uocibus).
Critical Apparatus
140 non β‎: nec V
Critical Apparatus
misere V: miseram 1472
Editor’s Note
140. miserae : the dative after iubere is a doubtful construction for which Cic. Att. ix. 13. 2 'hae mihi litterae Dolabellae iubent ad pristinas cogitationes reuerti', provides insufficient support, since there mihi can be taken as an ethic dative ('I find Dolabella's letters telling me …'); the earliest certain examples are in Tacitus. misere sperare might be supported by misere cupere ('desire desperately') but hardly suits this context, and the old correction miseram may well be right, the corruption being due to assimilating miseram to mihi.
Editor’s Note
sperare iubebas : cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 325 (the disappointed Aristaeus) 'quid me caelum sperare iubebas?'
Editor’s Note
141. conubia … hymenaeos : cf. Virg. Aen. iv. 316 'per conubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos': Catullus has the plural conubia (perhaps suggested by the common γάμοι, λέκτρα‎) again in 158, 62. 27.
Critical Apparatus
142 disserpunt X, dess- O
Editor’s Note
142. irrita : 'tear them into nothingness': for the proleptic use cf. 30. 10 irrita ferre, Virg. Aen. ix. 313 'aurae / … omnia discerpunt et nubibus irrita donant'.
Critical Apparatus
143 nunc B. Guarinus, hinc Froehlich: tum V
Editor’s Note
143. nunc iam : see on 8. 9. Ovid borrows this line for his Ariadne (addressing Dionysus, who she thinks has deserted her, not Theseus), Fasti iii. 473 ff. 'dicebam, memini, "periure et perfide Theseu": / ille abiit; eadem crimina Bacchus habet: / nunc quoque "nulla uiro" clamabo "femina credat"'.
Critical Apparatus
144 fidelis O
Critical Apparatus
145 quis V (supra scripto pro quibus X): qui r
Critical Apparatus
postgestit V: corr. rmg
Critical Apparatus
adipisci V: corr. O et Rmg
Editor’s Note
145. quis : the antecedent is to be understood out of the singular uiro. For the dative cf. 193, 203, 263, 307, 63. 37.
Editor’s Note
praegestit : the prefix is intensive as in praetrepidans, 46. 7.
Editor’s Note
apisci : the simple verb, normal in comedy, was displaced in later usage by the compound adipisci but survives as a mannered archaism as late as Tacitus: cf. 150 creui.
Editor’s Note
146. nil metuunt iurare : 'there is no oath they scruple to take, no promise they forbear to make'.
Editor’s Note
148. metuere : the change from metuunt (146) to metuere and the combination of the gnomic perfect metuere (see on 62. 42) with the present curant are awkward and dicta metuere is a surprising phrase: Czwalina's meminere removes both difficulties.
Editor’s Note
149. certe : see on 30. 7.
Editor’s Note
in medio … turbine leti : for the metaphorical use of turbo cf. Ov. Met. vii. 614 'attonitus tanto miserarum turbine rerum', Sil. ix. 287 'fati tam saeuo in turbine'.
Editor’s Note
This intensive use of medius is common in poetry (see Vahlen, Opusc. Acad., ii. 540): so Virg. Aen. vi. 339 'mediis effusus in undis', 342 'medio sub aequore mersit', iv. 620 'media inhumatus harena', vii. 372 'mediae Mycenae', Prop, i. 11. 1 'mediis cessantem … Baiis', iv. 2. 40 'medio puluere ferre rosam', Juv. 3. 80 'mediis sed natus Athenis' ('a thorough Athenian'); in non-spatial contexts, Virg. Ecl. 10. 65 'frigoribus mediis', Aen. ii. 533 'in media iam morte tenetur', Georg. i. 230 'ad medias sementem extende pruinas' ('right into the frosts'); similarly in prose medius is idiomatically applied to what is essential or genuine, as opposed to what is marginal, Cic. Or. 11 'ingressionem e media philosophia repetitam' ('genuine philosophy'), Tusc. iii. 70 'in media stultitia haerere', Leg. ii. 53 'hoc e medio est iure ciuili' ('essential law'), Off. i. 63 'quae sunt ex media laude iustitiae'.
Editor’s Note
150. germanum is not strictly true: the Minotaur was her half-brother, the unnatural offspring of Pasiphae and the bull.
Editor’s Note
creui : 'decided': the old use of the simple verb (cf. Lucil. 122 M. 'praesidium castris educere creuit'), later supplanted by decerno, survived in legal language (e.g. Cic. Leg. iii. 6 'quodcumque senatus creuerit agunto'). Cf. 145 apisci.
Editor’s Note
151. quam … dessem : see on 82.
Editor’s Note
supremo in tempore : for tempus of a critical point of time cf. 169 'extremo tempore', Hor. Od. ii. 7. 1 'o saepe mecum tempus in ultimum / deducte'.
Editor’s Note
152. feris … alitibusque : cf. Hom. Il. i. 4 αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσι‎ / οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι‎, Soph. Ant. 29 ἀκλαυστον ἄταφον οἰωνοῖς γλυκὺν‎ / θησαυρόν εἰσορῶσι πρὸς χάριν βορᾶς‎. Ovid characteristically makes his Ariadne enumerate the likely fauna: Her. 10. 83 ff. 'iam iam uenturos aut hac aut suspicor illac / qui lanient auido uiscera dente lupos; / forsitan et fuluos tellus alat ista leones; / quis scit an et saeuam tigrida Dia ferat?'
Critical Apparatus
153 praeda] p'ea (postea) O
Critical Apparatus
iniacta Ellis (iniecta iam Calph.): intacta V
Editor’s Note
153. iniacta : for the unreduced vowel cf. 43. 8 insapiens.
Editor’s Note
iniacta … terra : without burial—or at least the token burial of the scattering of earth—the spirit has no rest.
Editor’s Note
154–6. For the conceit see on 60. 1: to the lioness and the monstrous legendary whirlpools, types of heartless cruelty, the Syrtes, the dreaded shallows off the African coast, are added here as they are in Ov. Met. viii. 120.
Editor’s Note
154. sola sub rupe : so Virg. Ecl. 10. 14; cf. 57, 184.
Critical Apparatus
156 sirtix O
Critical Apparatus
scilla O, silla X
Editor’s Note
156. uasta Carybdis : Lucretius has the same phrase (i. 722) and Virgil uses the whole line, Aen. vii. 302 'quid Syrtes aut Scylla mihi, quid uasta Charybdis / profuit?' The basic implication of uastus (a cognate of uacuus and uanus) is the emptiness or desolation which repels or appals the beholder. It is a favourite word with Virgil, who uses it in a great variety of contexts, always charged with an emotional suggestion of awe or horror: so of the sea, Aen. i. 118 'rari nantes in gurgite uasto', iii. 191 'uastum aequor', iii. 421 'uastos fluctus', vi. 296 'uasta uoragine'; of beasts, viii. 295 'uastum leonem'; of sounds, i. 245 'uasto cum murmure montis', x. 716 'uasto clamore lacessunt'. Similarly in common speech uastus expresses a repellent uncouthness without any suggestion of size : so uastus homo (Cic. de Or. i. 117), uasta littera (Cic. Or. 153, of the repulsive sound of x), uasta oratio (ad Her. iv. 18).
Critical Apparatus
157 taliaque redis O
Editor’s Note
157. qui reddis : the indicative in a relative clause of this type is the original usage; in Plautus indicative and subjunctive are interchangeable (Men. 309 'insanit hic quidem qui ipse male dicit sibi', but 312 'tu … non sanus satis … qui nunc ipsus male dicas tibi') and the indicative is the commoner; even Cicero sometimes chooses to use an indicative attributive clause instead of emphasizing the causal relation with the subjunctive (Att. xiii. 29. 3 'o te ferreum qui illius periculis non moueris', but Att. x. 10.1 'me caecum qui haec antea non uiderim'; Acad. i. 18 'sumne sanus qui haec uos doceo?': see Madvig on de Fin. i. 43). Catullus uses the indicative construction again at 62. 14; at 62. 21 and 27 he has the subjunctive.
Editor’s Note
158. fuerant : the appearance of the pluperfect where the imperfect might be expected can often be explained by the fact that it expresses a remote past state not in relation to the present but in relation to an intermediate event or state which is implied: e.g. Ter. Hec. 648 'si dudum fuerat ambiguum hoc mihi, nunc non est' ('if it had been doubtful before I learned better'), Virg. Aen. v. 397 'si mihi quae quondam fuerat … foret illa iuuentus' ('which I had had before I grew old'), Prop. i. 12. 11 'non sum ego qui fueram' ('the man I had been before Cynthia left me'), Ov. Am. epig. 1 'qui modo Nasonis fueramus quinque libelli, / tres sumus' ('who had been five before two were removed'). But in many cases, as here, such precision of thought cannot be read into it: the pluperfect encroached on the imperfect in colloquial speech, and poets (especially Propertius and Ovid) found its metrical convenience tempting.
Critical Apparatus
159 peremtis O
Editor’s Note
159. prisci : 'old-fashioned', with the implication of severity: cf. Hor. Od. iii. 21. 11 'prisci Catonis', Copa 34 'pereat cui sunt prisca supercilia'.
Critical Apparatus
160 nostras O
Critical Apparatus
Post u. 160 collocat u. 163 O
Editor’s Note
160 ff. attamen … cubile : the turn is as old as Euripides: fr. 132 N.2 (Andromeda) ἄγου δέ μ‎ʼ, ὧ ξέν‎ʼ, εἴτε πρόσπολον θέλεις‎ / εἴτ‎ʼ ἄλοχον εἴτε δμωίδα‎. The resemblance in phrasing to Nonnus' version of Ariadne's lament (xlvii. 390 ff.) suggests that Catullus and he were using the same hellenistic source (cf. 139):
Editor’s Note
160. attamen : for the use of at in apodosis cf. 30. 11.
Editor’s Note
uestras : i.e. the home of your family: see on 39. 20.
Editor’s Note
161. quae : the antecedent is me understood with ducere.
Editor’s Note
162. permulcens … lymphis : cf. Pacuvius, fr. 244 R. (Euryclea speaks to the disguised Ulysses) 'cedo tuum pedem mi lymphis flauis fuluum ut puluerem / manibus isdem quibus Ulixi saepe permulsi abluam'. For permulceo cf. 284.
Editor’s Note
uestigia : 'feet': first here in this use in which later poets find a convenient synonym for pedes: e.g. Virg. Aen. v. 566 'uestigia primi / alba pedis frontemque ostentans … albam'.
Editor’s Note
lymphis : see on 254 lymphata.
Critical Apparatus
164 sed X, si O
Critical Apparatus
auris rmg (aureis Baehrens): aures V
Editor’s Note
164. sed quid ego : Ariadne breaks off her vain reproaches with the same formula with which the poet interrupts himself at 116.
Critical Apparatus
165 extenuata X
Critical Apparatus
aucte V (aucto al. -te m, al. -to add. g)
Editor’s Note
165. externata : see on 71.
Editor’s Note
nullis sensibus auctae : 'endowed with no feelings': cf. Lucr. iii. 630 'sic animas intro duxerunt sensibus auctas'.
Editor’s Note
166. audire … reddere : 'can neither hear words uttered nor give them in reply': cf. Virg. Aen. i. 409 'ueras audire et reddere uoces', vi. 689.
Editor’s Note
169. nimis : see on 43. 4.
Editor’s Note
insultans … saeua fors : cf. Hor. Od. iii. 29. 49 'Fortuna saeuo laeta negotio et / ludum insolentem ludere pertinax'.
Editor’s Note
extremo tempore : see on 151.
Editor’s Note
170. etiam with inuidit: 'even grudges my plaint a hearing'.
Critical Apparatus
171 ne V: non Macrobius
Editor’s Note
171–2 citat Macrobius, sat. vi. i. 42.
Editor’s Note
171. utinam ne …: cf. Ennius, Medea 246 V. 'utinam ne in nemore Pelio securibus / caesa accedisset abiegna ad terram trabes / neue inde nauis incohandi exordium / coepisset', &c., a passage itself suggested by the opening lines of Euripides' Medea, εἴθ‎ʼ ὤφελ‎ʼ Ἄργους μὴ διαπτάσθαι σκάφος, κτλ‎. Virgil varies the motif, Aen. iv. 657–8 'heu nimium felix si litora tantum / numquam Dardaniae tetigissent nostra carinae'.
Editor’s Note
172. Cnosia : Minos' palace was indeed at Cnossus, but the adjective is no doubt used here, as often elsewhere (e.g. Virg. 'Georg. i. 222), as equivalent to 'Cretan': so Gortynia 75.
Editor’s Note
173. dira … stipendia : 'the grim tribute', i.e. the human tribute paid to the Minotaur (75 ff.): stipendia implies a regular payment.
Editor’s Note
173. nec : for the postponement see on 23. 7.
Critical Apparatus
174 creta O, fort. recte
Editor’s Note
174. in Cretam religasset must mean 'unmoored his ship for the voyage to Crete': but while religare can mean 'untie' (as in 63. 84 religat iuga), with funem, nauem, and the like as object it is so regular in the sense of 'tie up' that Catullus is unlikely to have used it otherwise here and O's Creta should probably be preferred, 'tied up his cable in Crete': cf. Ov. Met. xiv. 248 'Circaeo religata in litore pinu', xiii. 439 'litore Threicio classem religarat Atrides'.
Critical Apparatus
175 hic X, haec O
Critical Apparatus
176 consilia in η‎: consilium (consc- R) V
Critical Apparatus
nostris om. O
Critical Apparatus
requiesset η‎: requisisset V
Editor’s Note
177. nam : the connexion is 'I wish he had never come here: for he has left me in a desperate plight'. Ariadne's analysis of her dilemma recalls Medea's in Euripides (502 ff.):
Critical Apparatus
178 Idaeosne B. Guarinus et Parth.: idoneos (idoneos al. idmoneos X) ne V
Critical Apparatus
at Muretus, ah B. Guarinus: a V
Editor’s Note
178. Idaeos : the mountains of her native Crete (Call. Hymn 1. 51 'Ιδαίοις ἐν ὄρεσσι‎), where Mount Ida (mons Idaeus in Virg. Aen. iii. 105) dominates the island. Lachmann's Idomeneus, based on the variant idmoneos in GR, not only involves an anachronism, since Idomeneus was Ariadne's nephew, son of her brother Deucalion, but introduces a genitive termination which exists in Greek (ʼ Ιδομενεῦς‎ Hom. Il. xiii. 424) but is unknown in Latin.
Editor’s Note
178 f. at … aequor : V's a … ubi gives no satisfactory sense; at, as often, introduces the speaker's own objection.
Critical Apparatus
179 ponti O, pontum X
Critical Apparatus
ubi diuidit V: ubi del. Auantius3
Editor’s Note
179. discernens … diuidit : for the combination of synonyms cf. 221 'gaudens laetanti pectore', 313 f. 'torquens … uersabat'.
Editor’s Note
truculentum : cf. 63. 16 truculenta pelagi.
Critical Apparatus
180 an patris Rmg: impatris O, in patris G
Critical Apparatus
quem ne] quem uae r
Editor’s Note
180. an … reliqui? : 'or am I to hope for help from my father? The father that I left of my own free will?' The relative clause is put as a question (so quine 183), as often in the dialogue of comedy: e.g. Ter. Ph. 921–3 illud mihi / argentum rursum iube rescribi, Phormio. / — quodne ego descripsi porro illis quibus debui ?' ('you mean the money I paid out?'). quaene in 68. 91 represents a different and less straightforward use: see on that line.
Editor’s Note
181. caede : 'blood': for the concrete sense cf. 360, 368.
Critical Apparatus
182 consoles me manet O
Editor’s Note
182. consoler : Ariadne's rhetoric is better than her logic when she speaks of finding comfort in a husband's love for a husband's desertion.
Critical Apparatus
183 quiue X lentos O, uentos X
Editor’s Note
183. lentos : the basic meaning of lentus seems to be 'yielding under pressure': so, as one or other half of that definition is emphasized, it means on the one hand (1) 'flexible', 'pliant' (so of the vine, 61. 102, of the poplar, 64. 290), and on the other (2) 'sticky', 'tough', 'viscous' (and metaphorically 'slow', 'phlegmatic'). That the meaning here is (1), lentos repeating the notion of incuruans, is shown by Virg. Aen. iii. 384 'Trinacria lentandus ("must be made lentus", i.e. bent) remus in unda'.
Critical Apparatus
184 colitur A. Palmer: litus V
Editor’s Note
184. nullo colitur … tecto : 'is inhabited by no dwelling': so Ovid's Ariadne says (Her. 10. 59) 'uacat insula cultu'. With the manuscript reading nullo litus sola insula tecto the construction must be litus nullo tecto, sola insula: the interlaced structure of two appositional phrases is a very common device of later poetry (e.g. Virg. Ecl. 9. 9 'ueteres iam fracta cacumina fagos', Ov. Met. xiii. 598 'da precor huic aliquem solacia mortis honorem', Hor. Epod. 14. 7 'inceptos, olim promissum carmen, iambos', Prop. ii. 3. 14 'non oculi, geminae, sidera nostra, faces'), but Catullus does not use it elsewhere and the loose ablative of description nullo tecto, 'a shore without dwellings' (which would not be surprising in Propertius) is unlikely in Catullus. For sola cf. 57, 154.
Editor’s Note
186. nullā spes : see on 357.
Editor’s Note
omnia muta … letum : cf. Prop. iv. 3. 53 'omnia surda tacent', Virg. Aen. i. 91 'praesentemque uiris intentant omnia mortem'.
Critical Apparatus
190 muletam O, mulctam X
Editor’s Note
190. multam : properly a legal fine or forfeit: a prosaic word, not elsewhere used in elevated verse: cf. multantes 192.
Critical Apparatus
191 comprecor V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Editor’s Note
191. fidem : 'protection': cf. 34. 1.
Critical Apparatus
192 mulctantes V
Editor’s Note
192–3. Ariadne appeals to the Furies, in Homer the punishers of perjury: Il. xix. 259 ʼΕρινύες αἵ θ‎ʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν‎ / ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται ὅτις κ‎ʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ‎.
Editor’s Note
192. uindice : here first used adjectivally: again in Ov. Met. i. 230 uindice flamma. Note the threefold repetition of the same idea in multantes uindice poena.
Editor’s Note
193. anguino … capillo : in literature as in art the Furies are depicted with snakes for hair (or with snakes entwined in their hair): Pausanias (i. 28. 6) says that Aeschylus was the first so to represent them (Cho. 1049 πεπλεκτανημέναι πυκνοῖς δράκοσι‎): cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 482 'caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues / Eumenides', Tib. i. 3. 69 'Tisiphoneque impexa feros pro crinibus angues'.
Editor’s Note
194. exspirantis : with iras: 'whose brows wreathed with snaky hair display the blast of wrath from their hearts'.
Editor’s Note
praeportat : in the sense of prae se fert; elsewhere only in Catullus' contemporaries Lucretius (ii. 621 'telaque praeportant uiolenti signa furoris') and Cicero (Arat. 430 'prae se / scorpius infestus praeportans flebile acumen').
Critical Apparatus
195 meas O, et meas X (corr. rmg)
Editor’s Note
195. huc huc : for the summons to the goddesses cf. 61. 8.
Editor’s Note
196. uae, usually accompanied by a dative (though in 8. 15 Catullus uses it with an accusative), is here used absolutely as in Ov. Am. iii. 6. 101 'uae demens narrabam', Hor. Od. i. 13. 3 'uae meum tumet iecur', Virg. Ecl. 9. 28.
Editor’s Note
extremis … medullis : cf. 93 'imis medullis', 198 'pectore ab imo': for extremus in this context cf. Ov. Her. 4. 70 'acer in extremis ossibus haesit amor'.
Editor’s Note
197. cogor : i.e. by destiny; this use of the verb is a mannerism in Propertius (e.g. i. 1. 8, i. 7. 8, i. 12. 14, i. 16. 13 'grauibus cogor deflere querellis').
Editor’s Note
furore : see on 54.
Editor’s Note
198. quae quoniam : a favourite connective formula in Lucretius (e.g. i. 21).
Editor’s Note
pectore ab imo : Lucretius has the same verse ending in iii. 57.
Critical Apparatus
200 quali solam ζ‎η‎ (solam iam r): qualis sola V
Editor’s Note
200. quali … mente : i.e. immemori: Ariadne's curse is fulfilled in 207 ff., though the Eumenides are there forgotten and it is Jupiter himself who answers her prayer.
Critical Apparatus
201 funestent r
Editor’s Note
202–48. The story of the return of Theseus and the fulfilment of Ariadne's curse.
Critical Apparatus
204 inuito V: corr. α‎
Editor’s Note
204. inuicto … numine : as inuicto shows, numine has here its normal sense of 'divine power' or 'will', but in combination with adnuit it has perhaps some suggestion of its original meaning of 'nod', which is found in literature only in Lucretius (ii. 632 'quatientes numine cristas'; cf. iv. 179). Livy vii. 30. 20 'annuite, patres conscripti, nutum numenque uestrum inuictum Campanis' suggests that the phrase belongs to an old prayer formula.
Editor’s Note
204 f. numine … quo motu : for the antecedent repeated in the relative clause by a synonym or a word of similar sense see on 96. 3.
Critical Apparatus
205 quo motu Heyse: quõ (quomodo) tunc V
Editor’s Note
205–7. The idea goes back to Homer Il. i. 528 ἦ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ‎ʼ ὀφρύσι νεῦσε Κρονίων‎ / … μέγαν δ‎ʼ ἐλέλιξεν Ὄλυμπον‎; Virgil repeats it in Aen. ix. 106 'adnuit et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum'.
Editor’s Note
205 f. horrida … aequora : 'ruffled': so Hor. Od. iii. 24. 40.
Editor’s Note
206. concussit … sidera mundus : i.e. 'concussa sunt sidera mundi': for the idiom see on 305.
Editor’s Note
mundus : the firmament as in 66. 1: see on 47. 2. For the expression of these lines cf. Ov. Met. viii. 780 '(Ceres) adnuit his capitisque sui pulcherrima motu / concussit grauidis oneratos messibus agros', Stat. Theb. vii. 3 'concussitque caput motu quo celsa laborant sidera', Claud. R.P. iii. 66 'dixit et horrendo concussit sidera motu'.
Critical Apparatus
207 mentem θ‎, mentis η‎: mente V
Editor’s Note
207. caeca … caligine : cf. 68. 44 caeca nocte: Lucretius (iii. 304, iv. 456) and Virgil (Aen. iii. 203, viii. 253) have the same phrase.
Editor’s Note
208. consitus : literally 'sown' or 'planted with': for the metaphorical use ('fitted' or 'covered with') cf. Plaut. Men. 756 'consitus sum senectute', Lucr. ii. 211 'sol lumine conserit arua': obsitus is common in the same use (Virg. Aen. viii. 307 'obsitus aeuo', Ter. Eun. 236 'pannis annisque obsitum').
Editor’s Note
209. mandata … tenebat : cf. Lucr. ii. 582 'memori mandatum mente tenere'. The words are picked up in 232 (mandata) and 238 (mandata … tenentem).
Editor’s Note
210. dulcia … sustollens signa : 'hoisting the welcome signal', i.e. the white sail.
Editor’s Note
nec : for the position of the connective see on 23. 7.
Critical Apparatus
211 Erechtheum Vossius: ereptum V
Editor’s Note
211. Erectheum … portum : the harbour of Athens, from its king Erechtheus, in legend Aegeus' great-grandfather. For the spelling cf. 35 Pthiotica.
Critical Apparatus
212 moenico V: corr. r
Editor’s Note
212. ferunt : see on 1.
Editor’s Note
diuae : i.e. Athena, the tutelary goddess of Athens.
Editor’s Note
classi : for the ablative cf. 66. 45 'iuuentus / per medium classi barbara nauit Athon'; Catullus has the normal classe in 1. 53.
Critical Apparatus
213 cum crederet egens V: corr. r
Editor’s Note
213. concrederet : an old compound, common in Plautus but otherwise rare.
Critical Apparatus
215 longe Hoeufft
Editor’s Note
215. iucundior … uita : cf. 65. 10 'uita frater amabilior', 68. 106 'uita dulcius atque anima / coniugium': similarly Virg. Aen. v. 724 'nate mihi uita quondam, dum uita manebat, / care magis', Cic. Sull. 88 'huic puero qui est ei uita sua multo carior', Fam. xiv. 7. 1 'Tulliolam quae nobis nostra uita dulcior est'. Hoefft's longe is tempting, but Catullus' fondness for the balancing of two nouns and their adjectives within the line (see intr., p. 275; 66.38 n.) confirms longa, even if it is little more than a stopgap.
Critical Apparatus
217 extremae r
Editor’s Note
217. reddite : Theseus was taken to Troezen in infancy by his mother Aethra and brought up there by her father King Pittheus: on reaching manhood he came to Athens and was recognized by his father.
Editor’s Note
extrema … fine : for the strengthening of a noun by an adjective of the same meaning cf. Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 12 supremo fine and see on 46. 1. For the gender see on 3.*
Editor’s Note
64. 218. quandoquidem: see on 101. 5.
Critical Apparatus
219 cui O, quem X (cui rm, al. cui add. g)
Editor’s Note
219. languida : 'swooning eyes': so 188 'languescent lumina morte'. Catullus is fond of the sentimental associations of these words (cf. 99 languenti corde, 331 languidulos somnos).
Editor’s Note
221. gaudens laetanti pectore : for the pleonasm cf. 103, 179, 192, 313–14.
Critical Apparatus
224 infulso V: corr. rmg
Editor’s Note
225. infecta : 'dyed', usually with an accompanying ablative, but cf. Prop. ii. 18. 23 infectos Britannos.
Editor’s Note
uago : not 'swaying' but 'journeying': see on 271.
Editor’s Note
226. luctus … incendia : cf. Virg. Aen. ix. 500 incendentem luctus.
Critical Apparatus
227 obscura r
Editor’s Note
227. obscurata : i.e. infecta.
Editor’s Note
ferrugine : ferrugo is a puzzling word. In ordinary technical language (Plin. N.H. xxiii. 151) ferrugo is 'iron-rust', corresponding in meaning as in form to aerugo, 'vert de gris', and ferrugineus sapor (N.H. xxxi. 12) is an iron taste in water. But when ferrugo and ferrugineus are used with reference to colour they clearly do not describe, as one might expect, the colour of rust. Servius on Aen. ix. 582 defines the colour as uicinus purpurae subnigrae, and a dark purple suits all but one of the passages in which the words are used. Virgil uses them of the hyacinth (Georg. iv. 183), of the sun's light in eclipse (Georg. i. 467 'caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit'), of Charon's boat (Aen. vi. 303; it is caerulea in 410), of a cloak (Aen. ix. 582 'pictus acu chlamydem et ferrugine clarus Hibera', xi. 772 'peregrina ferrugine clarus et ostro'): in Ov. Met. v. 404 Dis has 'obscura tinctas ferrugine habenas': in Tib. i. 4. 43 picea ferrugo is applied to a stormy sky. In Plaut. M.G. 1178–9 a character disguising himself as a sailor is advised 'palliolum habeas ferrugineum; nam is colos thalassicus est': that might well be purple, but in Ov. Met. xiii. 960 'uiridem ferrugine barbam / caesariemque' the sea-god's hair was sea-green.
Editor’s Note
Hibera : the (H)iberia with which ferrugo is connected here—and in Aen. ix. 582 (quoted above)—is probably Spain (which produced linen and also dyes) rather than the legendary Iberia of Hor. Epod. 5. 21, near the country of the Chalybes (so Servius on Aen. ix. 582).
Editor’s Note
dicet appears to be used with the sense of indicet, 'show', 'declare': the only parallel is Lucilius 108 'sicubi ad auris / fama tuam pugnam clarans (?praeclaram?) adlata dicasset'. For the archaic use of a simple verb normally replaced by a compound cf. 145 apisci, 150 creui.
Critical Apparatus
228 Itoni A. Guarinus: ithomi O, ythomi X
Editor’s Note
228. quod tibi si : 'but if …': for the insertion of the enclitic pronoun cf. Sen. Dial. vi. 16. 3 'quod tibi si uis exempla referri. … '
Editor’s Note
incola Itoni : Athena; Itonus (or Iton, Hom. Il. ii. 696) was a town in Phthiotis (Paus. i. 13. 2)—or in Boeotia (Paus. ix. 34. 1)—with a famous sanctuary of Athena; she is Ἰτωνία‎ in Bacchylides (fr. 15 Sn.), Ἰτωνίς‎ in Apollonius (i. 551), Ἰτωνίας‎ in Callimachus (Hymn 6. 74). The cult of Athena Itonias was to be found even in Athens, but to make a king of Athens, the chief seat of the goddess, use this description of her is an absurd piece of Alexandrian erudition: for similar learned periphrases cf. 290, 324).
Critical Apparatus
229 ac ζ‎: has V
Critical Apparatus
Erechthei Vossius: freti V
Editor’s Note
229 f. defendere … annuit : 'wills the defending of' (by herself), 'vouchsafes to defend': annuo is used again with an infinitive in Virg. Aen. xi. 19, but somewhat differently, in the sense of 'permit', 'ubi primum uellere signa / adnuerint superi', 'will the tearing up of the standards (by us)'. (In Livy xxviii. 17. 8 'amicitiam se Romanorum accipere annuit' the meaning is 'indicated by nodding'.)
Critical Apparatus
230 annuat r
Critical Apparatus
231 tum O, tu X
Editor’s Note
231. facito ut : cf. Virg. Aen. xii. 438 'facito … sis memor': the emphatic periphrasis is common in prose (e.g. Cic. Flacc. 57 'facite ut recordemini'). The second imperative in -ito, expressing a command the fulfilment of which is contingent, has its usual note of solemn injunction.
Critical Apparatus
232 obliferet al. obliteret mg
Critical Apparatus
233 ac ζ‎: hec V
Editor’s Note
233 f. ut … deponant : the ut-clause is epexegetic of haec in 232. lumina, 'your eyes'.
Critical Apparatus
234 antennene ne ut uidetur V: corr Rmg
Editor’s Note
234. antennae does not imply that Theseus had more than one ship; the plural is used of a single yard: cf. Ov. Met. xi. 483 'antennis totum subnectite uelum'.
Critical Apparatus
235 sustollant rmg: sustolant (subs- G) V
Editor’s Note
235. intorti : i.e. made of plaited rushes: cf. Virg. Aen. iv. 575 'tortos incidere funis'.
Critical Apparatus
237 aetas V: sors A. Guarinus
Critical Apparatus
sistet O, sistens G, sistant R: sistent rmg
Editor’s Note
237. aetas normally means a period of time (as in 232, 322, 68. 43 'fugiens aetas'): here it seems to be equivalent to tempus.
Editor’s Note
reducem … sistet : cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 620 'tutum patrio te limine sistam': the phrase belongs to formal religious language: so Livy xxix. 27. 3 (a general's prayer to the gods for his troops) 'uos precor … uti … saluos incolumesque … mecum domos reduces sistatis', Suet. Aug. 28 'ita mihi saluam ac sospitem rem publicam sistere in sua sede liceat'.
Editor’s Note
238 f. The construction is haec mandata Thesea prius constanti mente (ea) tenentem liquere ceu nubes montis cacumen (linquunt).
Editor’s Note
The vivid simile of the cloud lifting from the hilltop was perhaps suggested by Iliad v. 522 ff. νεφέλῃσιν ἐοικότες ἅς τε Κρονίων‎ / νηνεμίης ἔστησεν ἐπ‎ʼ ἀκροπόλοισιν ὄρεσσιν‎ / ἀτρέμας, ὄφρ‎ʼ εὕδῃσι μένος Βορέαο καὶ ἄλλων‎ / ζαχρηῶν ἀνέμων, οἴ τε νέφεα σκιόεντα‎ / πνοιῇσιν λιγυρῇσι διασκιδνᾶσιν ἀέντες‎.
Critical Apparatus
239 ceu rmg: seu V
Editor’s Note
239. ceu belongs to the old epic style.
Editor’s Note
240. niuei : a favourite word of Catullus: cf. 303, 309, 364, 58b. 4, 61. 9, 68. 125.
Editor’s Note
241. ex arce : i.e. from the Acropolis of Athens.
Editor’s Note
prospectum … petebat : cf. Virg. Aen. i. 180 'omnem prospectum late pelago petit'.
Editor’s Note
242. absumens : using up, wasting, his eyes on weeping: the construction with in of the object on which resources are spent is common with consumo.
Critical Apparatus
243 infecti Sabellicus (teste Auantio) et B. Guarinus: inflati V
Editor’s Note
243. infecti is unnecessary after 235 and V's inflati need not be changed: it adds a picturesque touch—the bellying of the sail lets Aegeus see its colour all too clearly.
Editor’s Note
246 f. funesta … paterna morte : 'in mourning for his father's death', looks back to funestet in 201.
Editor’s Note
246. domus … tecta : for the periphrasis cf. 276 uestibuli tecta.
Critical Apparatus
247 minoidi ut uidetur r: minoida V
Editor’s Note
247. Minoidĭ : the Greek dative form is rare in Latin: Catullus has Tethyi 66. 70; elsewhere it occurs only in Statius, who has Iasonĭ, Doridĭ, Palladĭ. For other Greek forms see on 3.
Critical Apparatus
249 quae] quem G1
Critical Apparatus
tum r: tamen V
Critical Apparatus
prospectans V (prospectans al. aspectans R, aspectans al. prospectans m, aspectans g)
Editor’s Note
249. prospectans takes the reader back to 52 and 60.
Editor’s Note
250. saucia curas : both as often of the sorrows of love: cf. Enn, Medea 254 V. 'amore saeuo saucia', Virg. Aen. iv. 1 '(Dido) iam dudum saucia cura'.
Editor’s Note
250–64. The story of Ariadne resumed with the arrival of Dionysus.
Critical Apparatus
251 parte δ‎: pater V
Editor’s Note
251. at parte ex alia : at turns the reader's eye to another scene on the embroidered picture.
Editor’s Note
florens : fresh and vigorous: Dionysus-Iacchus is always represented as a youthful god; so Arist. Frogs 395 τὸν ὡραῖον θεὸν παρακαλεῖτε‎, Ov. Met. iv. 17 f. 'tibi enim inconsumpta iuuenta est, / tu puer aeternus, tu formosissimus alto / conspiceris caelo', Tib. i. 4. 37 'solis aeterna est Phoebo Bacchoque iuuentas'.
Editor’s Note
uolitabat : cf. 63. 25. The verb has often a suggestion of bustling, swaggering, or flaunting: cf. Virg. Aen. xii. 126 'mediis in milibus ipsi / ductores auro uolitant ostroque superbi', Cic. Phil. xi. 6 '(Antonius) tota Asia uagatur, uolitat ut rex' de Domo 49 'cum tu florens ac potens per medium forum … uolitares'.
Editor’s Note
Iacchus is properly a minor deity—in origin probably the personification of a ritual cry, like Hymenaeus—associated with Demeter and Persephone in the Eleusinian mysteries, but already in Greek literature he has come to be identified with Bacchus, a cult title of Dionysus.
Critical Apparatus
252 cum] tum O
Editor’s Note
252. Nysigenis : Nysa, the place with which the origins of of Dionysus and his cult were connected in legend, was variously placed: Homer (Il. vi. 133) puts it in Thrace, later literature in Arabia or Ethiopia or India. The satyrs and sileni, spirits of wild nature, male counterparts of the Nymphs, came to be associated with Dionysus and his wild train: in literature and in art from Hellenistic times the satyrs are represented as youthful, the sileni (or Silenus) as old.
Critical Apparatus
253 te rmg: et V
Critical Apparatus
adriana V: corr. η‎
Editor’s Note
253. te … Ariadna : see on 69.
Editor’s Note
tuo … amore : 'love for you', as in 87. 4.
Critical Apparatus
254 quae Bergk, unum uersum excidisse ratus: qui V
Editor’s Note
254. quae tum : V's qui tum cannot be right, since harum in 256 requires a preceding feminine. With Bergk's quae tum we must assume the loss of a line (or more) introducing the maenads and containing the antecedent of quae. If bacchantes can be taken substantivally as equivalent to Maenades, it would be easy to read either (with Baehrens) quicum (i.e. quibuscum) or (as Dr. O. Skutch has suggested to me) cui tum (referring to Iacchus: for the dative—'in whose honour', 'at whose bidding'—cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 390 f. 'mollis tibi sumere thyrsos, / te lustrare choro, sacrum tibi pascere crinem', Stat. Theb. vii. 679 'utinam ipse ueniret / cui furis', Claudian IV Cons. Hon. 604 f. 'dubitassent orgia Bacchi / cui furerent'); for the substantival use cf. 61.
Editor’s Note
lymphata mente : lymphatus, 'maddened', is a coinage made on the analogy of laruatus (possessed by laruae, ghosts), to render νυμφόληπτος‎, which represents the popular Greek belief that the anger of the nymphs caused madness. lympha, originally lumpa, an Italic word for 'water', probably owed its spelling to a mistaken etymology which connected it with νύμφη‎. lymphatus is already used in the context of Bacchic worship in Pacuvius, fr. 422 R. 'lymphata aut Bacchi sacris commota': cf. Hor. Od. i. 37. 14 'mentem lymphatam Mareotico'.
Critical Apparatus
255 euhoe … euhoe α‎: euche … euche V (euohe rmg)
Editor’s Note
255–60. The acts and attributes described in these lines are the usual accompaniments of Bacchic worship in literature and art—the Bacchic cry of εὐοῖ‎, the thyrsus, the σπαραγμός‎, the oriental music of tambourines, horns, and αὐλοί‎: for other descriptions see Virg. Aen. iv. 300 ff., vii. 385 ff. All of course have their prototypes in Euripides' Bacchae: 25 θύρσον‎ … κίσσινον βέλος‎, 697 καταστίκτους δορὰς‎ / ὄφεσι κατεζώσαντο‎, 739 ἄλλαι δὲ δαμάλας διεφόρουν σπαράγμασι‎.
Editor’s Note
255. euhoe : the ejaculation stands outside the construction as in Soph. Tr. 218 ἰδού μ‎ʼ ἀναταράσσει εὐοῖ μ‎ʼ ὁ κισσός‎: so Virg. Aen. vii. 389 'euoe, Bacche, fremens'.
Editor’s Note
256. tecta … cuspide : wreathed with vine-leaves (Virg. Aen. vii. 396, Ov. Met. iii. 667) or ivy and topped with a pine-cone (Virg. Ecl. 5. 31).
Editor’s Note
259. orgia : 'secret rites' (ὄργια‎): the word is especially connected with the mysteries and with Bacchic worship: cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 521 'inter sacra deum nocturnique orgia Bacchi', Aen. iv. 302 'audito stimulant trieterica Baccho / orgia'. The cista was a cylindrical basket, originally made of wickerwork, later more elaborate, in which the cult-objects were kept (cf. Ov. A.A. ii. 609 'condita … Veneris mysteria cistis', Tib. 1. 7. 48 'leuis occultis conscia cista sacris'), and orgia may be used of these objects themselves, as in Sen. H.O. 594 'nos Cadmeis orgia ferre / tecum solitae condita cistis'.
Editor’s Note
cauis is not a mere stopgap; for cauus often emphasizes not so much the hollowness of an object as the fact that it surrounds, conceals, or protects something within it, expressing not a permanent attribute but a relation: so Virg. Aen. i. 516 'nube caua speculantur amicti' (a cloud that surrounds them), ii. 360 'nox atra caua circumuolat umbra', Prop. iii. 14. 12 'cauo protegit aere caput' (the protection of a helmet), iv. 10. 13 'cauas turris' (towers holding men), Ov. Tr. iv. 8. 17 'in caua ducuntur quassae naualia puppes' (the shelter of the dock)'. see on 17. 4.
Editor’s Note
260. quae … profani : cf. Hom. Hymn 2. 476 καὶ ἐπέφραδεν ὄργια πᾶσιν‎ / σεμνὰ τά τ‎ʼ οὔ πως ἔστι παρεξίμεν οὔτε πυθέσθαι‎, Eur. Bacch. 471–2 (Pentheus) τὰ δ‎ʼ ὄργι‎ʼ ἐστὶ τίν‎ʼ ἰδέαν ἔχοντά σοι‎; (Dion.) ἄρρητ‎ʼ ἀβακχεύτοισιν εἰδέναι βροτῶν‎.
Editor’s Note
profani : the uninitiated: so Virg. Aen. vi. 258 'procul, o procul este, profani', Hor. Od. iii. 1. 1 'odi profanum uulgus et arceo'.
Editor’s Note
261–4. Note the adaptation of sound to sense throughout this description of the oriental (barbara, 264) music which roused the ecstasy of the worshippers—the alliteration of p and t in 261–2, the o and u sounds of 263 and the contrasting i's of 264. The same four instruments—tambourine, cymbals, horn, and tibia—appear with the same alliterative effects in Lucretius' description of Cybele-worship, ii. 618 ff.:
Editor’s Note
261. proceris : i.e. with long fingers outstretched to beat the tambourine.
Critical Apparatus
262 tintinitus X (corr. rmg)
Editor’s Note
262. tereti … aere : i.e. the cymbal, a bronze half-sphere, the aera rotunda Cybebes of Prop. iv. 7. 61. For teres see on 314.
Editor’s Note
tinnitus … ciebant : cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 64 'tinnitusque cie et matris quate cymbala circum'.
Critical Apparatus
263 multi V: corr. Auantius3
Critical Apparatus
efflebant V: corr. β‎
Editor’s Note
263. multis : 'many had horns blaring out their hoarse boom': for the dative cf. 307 his.
Editor’s Note
raucisonos … bombos : cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 615 'aereaque assensu conspirant cornua rauco', Pers. 1. 99 'torua Mimalloneis implerunt cornua bombis', Lucr. iv. 545 'tuba depresso grauiter sub murmure mugit / et reboat raucum retro cita (?) barbara bombum'.
Editor’s Note
Cymbals and horns are primarily associated in art with Cybele worship (cf. Hor. Od. i. 18. 13 'saeua tene cum Berecyntio / cornu tympana', Ov. F. iv. 181, 'inflexo Berecynthia tibia cornu'), but the orgiastic cults tend to be assimilated to each other and the syncretism is already seen in Eur. Bacchae 120 ff. Conversely in the Attis (63. 23–30) terms associated with Bacchic worship (Maenades hederigerae, thiasus) are transferred to that of Cybele.
Editor’s Note
264. barbara … tibia : 'the outlandish pipe screamed with its frightening note', i.e. Asiatic, as in 63. 22: so in Hor. Epod. 9. 6 barbarum carmen is opposed to Dorium.
Editor’s Note
The tibia (αὐλός‎) bore no resemblance to the modern flute except in being a wind-instrument. Unlike the flute (but like the oboe or the clarinet) it was played through a reed which was held (as in these modern instruments) between the lips or (especially in its oriental varieties) within the mouth.
Editor’s Note
265–302. The description of the marriage ceremony and the guests is resumed.
Editor’s Note
265. amplifice does not appear again before the artificial language of Fronto: it is an 'enhanced' epic form like iustifica (406), regifice (Enn. Sc. 96 V.), largifica (Lucr. ii. 627).
Editor’s Note
266. complexa … amictu : 'clasped and clothed the couch with its covering'.
Critical Apparatus
267 thesalia X (corr. rmg)
Editor’s Note
267 f. spectando … expleta est : cf. Hom. Od. iv. 47 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ τάρπησαν ὁρώμενοι ὀφθαλμοῖσιν‎, Virg. Aen. viii. 265 'nequeunt expleri corda tuendo'.
Editor’s Note
267. Thessala pubes : cf. 4, 68. 101: pubes, properly a formal collective term for the adult male population (cf. the parody of a formal announcement in Plaut. Ps. 126 'pube praesenti in contione') provides a convenient poetical alternative to populus: in prose it is little used except in Livy, where it has an archaic ring.
Editor’s Note
268. decedere : 'give place'; the verb implies respectfulness: cf. Hor. Ep. ii. 2. 213 decede peritis.
Editor’s Note
269. hic : 'thereupon': the departing crowd of sightseers is compared to the waves stirred by a morning breeze from the west, moving slowly at first, then faster and faster as the wind rises. The simile goes back to Hom. Il. iv. 422 ff. (of the columns going forward to battle):
Critical Apparatus
270 procliuit O1
Editor’s Note
270. horrificans : 'ruffling' (cf. 205 horrida): so Hom. Il. vii. 63 (of Greeks and Trojans marching to battle) οἵη δὲ Ζεφύροιο ἐχεύατο πόντον ἔπι φρὶξ‎ / ὀρνυμένοιο νέον‎.
Editor’s Note
procliuas : 'tumbling forwards': cf. Lucr. vi. 728 (of a stream running downhill) 'procliuis item fiat minus impetus undis'.
Critical Apparatus
271 sub limina β‎: sublimia V
Editor’s Note
271. aurora … Solis : 'when the dawn is rising towards the threshold of the journeying Sun'; cf. Hom. Od. xxiv. 12 Ἠελίοιο πύλαι‎, Virg. Aen. vi. 255 'primi sub limina Solis et ortus'.
Editor’s Note
uagi : uagus is a favourite word of Catullus: 225 'uago malo', 277 'uago pede', 340 'uago certamine cursus', 61. 110 'uaga nocte', 63. 4 'uagus animi', 13 'uaga pecora', 25 'uaga cohors', 31 'uaga uadit', 86 'pede uago'. Here, as often, uagus is 'always on the move': the idea conveyed is restlessness rather than unsteadiness or uncertainty: so of a heavenly body which is not wandering but far-travelling in Laevius (?), fr. 32 M. 'hac qua sol uagus igneas habenas / immittit', Paneg. Mess. 76 'uagi sileantur pascua solis', of the shifting sea in Tib. ii. 6 3 'uaga aequora', ii. 3. 39 'uago ponto', of the restless travelling merchant (who is quite certain where he is going) in Tib. i. 3. 39 'uagus nauita', Hor. A.P. 117 'uagus mercator'. So uagari in 46. 7 is 'get abroad': as Henry says on Aen. v. 560, it excludes 'the idea of not knowing where one is included in "wander", of fickleness included in "rove", of eccentricity and going beyond bounds included in "ramble", of indolence and idleness included in "saunter" '.
Critical Apparatus
273 leuiterque Or, leuiter X: leni θ‎
Critical Apparatus
resonant η‎θ‎
Editor’s Note
273. leuiter : 'softly': of a low sound as in 84. 8, Virg. Ecl. 1. 55 'saepe leui somnum suadebit inire susurro', Prop. i. 3. 43 'leuiter mecum deserta querebar', ii. 32. 15 'leuiter lymphis tota crepitantibus urbe', Ov. Her. 3. 80 'et leuiter dicas "haec quoque nostra fuit" ', Cic. Sull. 31 'ea quae leuiter dixerat uobis probare uolebat, eos autem qui circum iudicium stabant audire nolebat'. (For a discussion of this and other meanings see Löfstedt, Coniectanea (1950), 73 ff.) Seneca borrows this phrase from Catullus, Agam. 680 'licet alcyones Ceyca suum / fluctu leuiter plangente sonent'.
Editor’s Note
cachinni : for the bubbling laughter of the waves cf. Accius fr. 573 R. 'stagna sonantibus excita saxis … crepitu plangente cachinnant': so καχλάζω‎ in Theocritus (6. 12 καχλάζοντος ἐπ‎ʼ αἰγιαλοῖο‎) and Apollonius (ii. 570 καχλάζοντος κύματος‎). see on 31. 14. Cachinni is nominative, subject of a clause parenthetically inserted: the subject quae is resumed in 274.
Editor’s Note
274. magis magis : cf. 38. 3, Virg. Georg. iv. 311 'magis magis aera carpunt'; at 68. 48 Catullus has the commoner magis atque magis.
Critical Apparatus
275 refulgens V: corr. r
Editor’s Note
275. ab luce refulgent : 'sparkle with the light': for ab 'as a result of' cf. 66. 63 'uuidulam a fluctu', 'wet with the wave', Virg. Georg. i. 234 'torrida semper ab igni', Ov. Met. i. 66 'madescit ab Austro' (Ovid is very fond of the use), Prop. iii. 2. 25 'nomen ab aeuo / excidet' ('with time'). The idiom is not common in prose, but Cicero uses it in a context very like this, Acad. ii. 105 'mare illud quod nunc Fauonio nascente purpureum uidetur idem huic nostro uidebitur, nec tamen assentietur, quia nobismet ipsis modo caeruleum uidebatur, mane rauum, quodque nunc, qua a sole collucet, albescit et uibrat'. (Similarly N.D. ii. 92 'conflagrare ab ardoribus'.)
Editor’s Note
purpurea : cf. Cic. Acad. ii. 105 quoted above and see on 45. 12.
Editor’s Note
nantes : for waves 'floating' cf. Enn. Ann. 596 V. 'fluctusque natantes': so Virgil uses praenatare (Aen. vi. 705), Horace innare (Od. iii. 17. 7) of a river.
Critical Apparatus
276 tum β‎: tamen O, tamen al, tibi X
Critical Apparatus
linquentis V: corr. r
Editor’s Note
276. uestibuli … tecta : cf. 246 domus tecta.
Critical Apparatus
277 ad θ‎: at V (a r)
Editor’s Note
277. ad se : 'to their homes': so Plaut. M.G. 525 'transcurrito ad uos': Cic. Att. xvi. 10. 1 'ueni ad me in Sinuessanum', Rep. iii. 40 'cum uenerat ad se in Sabinos'.
Editor’s Note
uago … pede : see on 271: there is no implication that they did not know where they were going, but they went far and wide.
Editor’s Note
discedebant : the σπονδειάζων‎ (see on l. 3) perhaps conveys the idea of slow and unwilling movement.
Critical Apparatus
278 habitum X (corr. g)
Editor’s Note
278. princeps : 'leading the way': Chiron the centaur, a local god of the hills, comes first as a friendly neighbour from his cave on Pelion (Πηλίου ἐκ κορυφῆς‎, Il. xvi. 144): in one form of the legend (Pind. Nem. 3. 97) Chiron gives Thetis to Peleus. In Homer he brings an ash spear as his gift: here, with a characteristically Alexandrian touch, he brings flowers.
Critical Apparatus
280 quoscumque ut uidetur r: quodcumque V
Critical Apparatus
campis V: corr. r
Critical Apparatus
thesala X, thesalia O
Editor’s Note
280 f. Thessala … ora : 'the region of Thessaly' (cf. 66. 43): fluminis : i.e. the Peneus (285).
Critical Apparatus
282 aurea V: corr. rmg
Critical Apparatus
parit g, perit V (nisi fallor): aperit Housman
Editor’s Note
282. aura … Fauoni : cf. Call. Hymn 2. 80 σεῖο δὲ βωμοὶ‎ / ἄνθεα μὲν φορέουσιν ἐν εἴαρι τόσσα περ ὧραι‎ / ποικίλ‎ʼ ἀγινεῦσι Ζεφύρου πνείοντος ἐέρσην‎.
Critical Apparatus
283 corulis V, curulis al. corollis Rmg
Editor’s Note
283. indistinctis : 'twined in unsorted wreaths': Chiron's present is an unsophisticated one.
Critical Apparatus
284 quo cod. Berolinensis anni mcccclxiii, quis r: quod O, quot X
Editor’s Note
284. quo … odore : 'and with that scent'.
Editor’s Note
permulsa : 'caressed', of a soothing touch, as in 162; so Cic. Arat. 184 'Aram quam flatu permulcet spiritus Austri'. see on 62. 41 'mulcent aurae'.
Editor’s Note
risit : the metaphor goes back to Hom. Il. xix. 362 γέλασσε δὲ πᾶσα περὶ χθὼν‎ / χαλκοῦ ὑπὸ στεροπῆς‎; for Catullus' use cf. Hom. Hymn. 2. 13 κᾦζ‎ʼ ἥδιστ‎ʼ ὀδμή, πᾶς δ‎ʼ οὐρανὸς εὐρὺς ὕπερθεν‎ / γαῖά τε πᾶσ‎ʼ ἐγέλασσε καὶ ἁλμυρὸν οἶδμα θαλάσσης‎. Compare gaudet in 46.
Critical Apparatus
285 penies V (penios r, penies al. -os mg)
Critical Apparatus
adest ut V: corr. r
Editor’s Note
285. Penios : Πηνειός‎, the eponymous god of the river: for the Greek termination cf. 35 Cieros.
Editor’s Note
Tempe : the fertile valley between Olympus and Ossa through which the Peneus winds to the sea. Its beauty was so famous that the word becomes a common noun: Virg. Georg. ii. 469, 'frigida tempe', Cic. Att. iv. 15. 5 'Reatini me ad sua τέμπη‎ duxerunt'.
Editor’s Note
285 f. uiridantia … siluae … inpendentes : Pliny's description repeats Catullus' adjective: N.H. iv. 31 'in eo cursu Tempe uocant ("in that stretch is what they call T.") … ultra uisum hominis attollentibus se dextra laeuaque conuexis iugis, intus silua late uiridante: hac labitur Penius uitreus calculo, amoenus circa ripas gramine, canorus auium concentu'; cf. Ov. Met. i. 568 'est nemus Haemoniae praerupta quod undique claudit / silua: uocant Tempe, per quae Peneus ab imo / effusus Pindo spumosis uoluitur undis'.
Critical Apparatus
287 minosim V: Haemonisin Heinsius, alii alia
Critical Apparatus
doris V; locus multum uexatus
Editor’s Note
287. linquens : see on 35. 3.
Editor’s Note
Minosim … doris celebranda choreis : Minosim looks as if it represented a Greek dative plural; the most likely of those which have been suggested is Heinsius's Haemonisin, 'Thessalian women' (Ovid has Haemonis, Her. 13. 2). doris has not been satisfactorily explained or emended. The adjectival form Dorus for Dorius or Doricus is not found elsewhere and the reference of the adjective is not clear: a reference to the martial Dorian music is clearly not in place and Baehrens's suggestion that it might refer to the dress of the dancers, wearing the Dorian chiton, is only a guess. Statius's doctis is weak: Madvig's duris is ill-judged: durae choreae would be clod-hopping dancers, as they are in Ov. Fast. iii. 537 ('ducunt posito duras cratere choreas': cf. Lucr. v. 1401 'membra mouentes / duriter').
Editor’s Note
celebranda : to be filled, made celebria: cf. Aen. iii. 280 'Actiaque Iliacis celebramus litora ludis'.
Critical Apparatus
288 non uacuos Bergk (-uus iam B. Guarinus): non accuos O, non acuos al. nonacrios (-as Gr) X
Editor’s Note
288. uacuos : 'empty-handed': cf. Juv. 10. 22 'cantabit uacuus coram latrone uiator'; inanis is similarly used (e.g. Plaut. Amph. 330, Prop. iv. 5. 47).
Editor’s Note
ille is not 'unbetont wie il portait', as Kroll says, but deictic, drawing the reader's attention to the figure: 'there he was, with trees in his hands'. For this 'pictorial' use of ille cf. Prop. i. 1. 12 'nam modo Partheniis amens errabat in antris, / ibat et hirsutas ille uidere feras', iv. 2. 45 'nec flos ullus hiat pratis quin ille decenter / impositus fronti langueat ante meae'. So in Virgilian similes: Aen. x. 707 'ac uelut ille canum morsu de montibus altis / actus aper', xii. 4 ff. 'Poenorum qualis in aruis / saucius ille graui uenantum uulnere pectus / tum demum mouet arma leo'.
Editor’s Note
radicitus 'root and all': cf. Virg. Georg. i. 20 'teneram ab radice ferens cupressum'.
Editor’s Note
289. recto … stipite : 'straight-stemmed'; the ablative of description takes the place of a compound adjective (cf. 294), a device of which Virgil makes much effective use.
Critical Apparatus
290 mutanti V: corr. rmg
Critical Apparatus
sororum V: corr. r
Editor’s Note
290. nutanti : 'waving': cf. Enn. Ann. 490 V. 'capitibus nutantis pinos rectosque cupressos', Virg. Aen. ix. 681 f. 'quercus … sublimi uertice nutant'.
Editor’s Note
sorore : i.e. the poplar; when Phaethon, driving his father the Sun's chariot, met his fiery death, his mourning sisters were turned into poplars shedding tears of amber: see Ov. Met. ii. 340 ff.
Editor’s Note
lenta : 'supple': see on 183.
Critical Apparatus
291 flamati O, flamanti X
Editor’s Note
291. cūpressu : the lengthening of the first syllable in this word is found only here: cf. 151 sūpremo.
Critical Apparatus
292 contesta V (corr. R)
Editor’s Note
292. late contexta : i.e. wherever one looked (late) there was a screen of foliage.
Critical Apparatus
293 uellatum V: corr. rmg
Editor’s Note
294. sollerti corde : the ablatival phrase corresponds to the Greek compound adjectives πολύμητις, ποικιλόβουλος‎ which are applied to Prometheus as inventor of the arts: cor, as usual, is the seat of the intelligence, not the emotions (cf. Lucr. v. 1106 'ingenio praestare et corde uigere'). Prometheus' appearance here is an allusion to the story that after his release from his punishment Prometheus sealed his reconciliation with Zeus by warning him of the fatal consequences of the marriage with Thetis which he contemplated, since her offspring was destined to be greater than his father (Aesch. P.V. 768).
Editor’s Note
295. extenuata … uestigia : the faint scars left by his punishment; cf. Ov. Am. iii. 8. 19 'cicatrices, ueteris uestigia pugnae'. Similar uses of extenuare are common in medical writers: e.g. Pliny, N.H. xxxii. 24 (of a medicinal substance) 'cicatrices extenuat'.
Critical Apparatus
296 quam ζ‎: qua V
Editor’s Note
296. silici … catena : the construction is awkward, but not impossible: for silici restrictus cf. Cic. Tusc. ii. 23 (translated from Aeschylus) 'aspicite religatum asperis uinctumque saxis', Man. v. 551 'astrinxere pedes scopulis'.
Editor’s Note
297. persoluit : probably quadrisyllabic: see on 2b. 13. For the spondaic ending, see on 3.
Critical Apparatus
298 diui V: corr. m
Critical Apparatus
natisque α‎: gnatisque V (gratisque m, al. gratis add. g)
Editor’s Note
298. natisque : the only hypermetric hexameter (in which the final syllable is elided into the following line) in Catullus' longer poems; he has another in elegiacs (if the text is sound) at 115. 5. There are isolated examples in Lucilius and Lucretius, but the device is rare before Virgil, who makes considerable use of it (mostly with -que) and exploits its dramatic effect. (For a striking example see Aen. iv. 629, where Dido's final speech ends with hypermetric -que.) In Greek the earliest example is in an elegiac epigram of Callimachus (Ep. 41. 1 Pf. οὐκ οἶδ‎ʼ / εἰ‎); Catullus and Virgil may have taken it from Hellenistic practice—and the Alexandrians, with their taste for the unusual, may have derived it from some Homeric lines in which they took the ending Ζῆν‎ to be Ζῆνα‎ with elision—but there is no example in extant Alexandrian hexameter poems.
Editor’s Note
299. Phoebe : for the apostrophe see on 69. In the accounts of Homer (Il. xxiv. 63) and Pindar (Nem. 5. 41) Apollo is present at the wedding; in Aeschylus (fr. 450, quoted by Plato, Rep. 383b) Thetis accuses him of treachery—he had sung at her wedding of the blessings in store for her and then had killed her son. Catullus is following another version in which the death of Achilles at Apollo's hands (directly or through Paris) has coloured the earlier part of the story and Apollo's enmity is acknowledged from the beginning.
Editor’s Note
caelo is most naturally taken with aduenit, 'from heaven': so Aen. vi. 190 'columbae / ipsa sub ora uiri caelo uenere uolantes'.
Critical Apparatus
300 ydri V (uerum adhuc latere suspicor)
Editor’s Note
300. unigenam : 'sister': so in 66. 53 unigena translates Callimachus' γνωτός‎. The usual meaning of unigena is 'only begotten', μονογένης‎, but while μονογένης‎ is a regular epithet of Hecate (as the only child of Perseus and Asterie) and might well be transferred to Artemis, with whom Hecate is often identified (see on 34. 13), it could hardly be applied to Artemis here when her brother has been mentioned in the preceding line.
Editor’s Note
cultricem montibus Idri : Catullus himself provides the only parallel to the construction, 66. 58 'Canopitis incola litoribus'; for cultrix cf. 61. 1–2 'collis o Heliconii / cultor'.
Editor’s Note
Idri : if the reading Idri is right, Idrus must be presumed to be the eponymous founder (on coins and inscriptions his name appears as Idrieus) of the town of Idrias in Caria, a region associated with Hecate-worship, which according to Stephanus of Byzantium had its own cult of Hecate and got the name of Hecatesia from it.
Critical Apparatus
301 palea V (corr. G)
Editor’s Note
301. nam : for the postponement of nam see on 23. 7.
Editor’s Note
303. niueis : i.e. ivory (1. 45).
Editor’s Note
flexerunt … artus : for the phrase cf. Soph. O.C. 19 κῶλα κάμψον τοῦδ‎ʼ ἐπ‎ʼ ἀξέστου πέτρου‎. In accordance with the practice of the heroic age, the gods do not lie on couches but sit at meals: cf. Athen. i. 17f καθέζονται ἐν τοῖς συνδείπνοις οἱ ἥρωες, οὐ κατακέκλινται‎.
Editor’s Note
304. constructae … mensae : cf. Cic. Tusc. v. 62 'mensae conquisitissimis epulis exstruebantur', Ov. Met. xi. 120 'mensas posuere ministri / exstructas dapibus'.
Editor’s Note
305. cum interea : here simply temporal as in Lucr. iv. 1205 (where also the words begin the line), without the adversative or concessive implication which the phrase has in 95. 3 and usually elsewhere.
Editor’s Note
quatientes corpora : by a not uncommon idiom the subject is represented as performing an action in which he is actually the patient; cf. 17. 24 'si pote … excitare ueternum', 206 'concussit micantia sidera mundus' (the sky had its stars dashed together), 68. 122 'nomen … intulit in tabulas' (had his name entered), Lucr. v. 415 'constiterunt imbres et flumina uim minuerunt', vi. 645 'complebant pectora (i.e. their own hearts) cura', Prop. iv. 3. 27 'diceris et macie uultum tenuasse' (your face has been thinned), ii. 19. 25 'formosa suo Clitumnus flumina luco / integit' (has its waters sheltered by its woods).
Critical Apparatus
307 his] hic m, al. hic add. g
Critical Apparatus
uestis Parth.: questus V
Editor’s Note
307. his : dative of 'advantage': 'they had a white robe wrapping their ankles': cf. 263 multis.
Editor’s Note
tremulum : of age as in 61. 51, 161, 68. 154.
Critical Apparatus
308 talos B. Guarinus: tuos V
Critical Apparatus
intinxerat OR
Editor’s Note
308. candida purpurea : in Plato, Rep. 617c, the Fates are λευχειμονοῦσαι, στέμματα ἐπὶ τῶν κεφαλῶν ἔχουσαι‎; here the colour-contrast of white and red which is a favourite cliché of Latin verse (see on 61. 10 and 187) is added to both their accoutrements: their white robes have a red edge and the ribbons on their white hair are red.
Critical Apparatus
309 roseae niueo 'alii' apud A. Guarinum: roseo niuee (uinee O) V
Editor’s Note
309. at : turns the reader's eye from foot to head.
Editor’s Note
roseae niueo : Guarinus's correction for roseo niueae is necessary. roseo uertice would mean either that they rivalled the unique 'purple lock' of Scylla's father Nisus (roseus crinis, Ciris 122) or that they had garlands of roses (?cf. myrtea coma, [Tib.] iii. 4. 28), an unlikely adornment for these aged ladies. For the contrasting red ribbon cf. Prop. iv. 9. 52 'puniceo canas stamine uincta comas', Ciris 511 'purpureas flauo retinentem uertice uittas'.
Editor’s Note
310. carpebant … laborem : 'pursued their task of spinning', an extension from such phrases as Virg. Georg. iv. 335 'uellera carpebant', i. 390 'carpentes pensa', in which carpere refers to the action here described in 312 (deducens fila).
Critical Apparatus
311 collum V: corr. rmg
Editor’s Note
311. colum : usually feminine: here masculine as in Prop. iv. 1. 72, 9. 48, Ov. A. A. i. 702.
Editor’s Note
311 ff. laeua … fusum : the left hand held the spindle in its wrapping of soft wool (i.e. with the globus of wool on it): the right alternately (1) held palm upwards (supinis digitis) towards the distaff nimbly drew down the fibres and shaped them into thread, and (2) turned palm downwards (prono pollice) twirled on the thumb the spindle (to a notch in the top of which the fibre was attached) poised on its rounded whorl. For (1) cf. Tib. i. 3. 86 'deducat plena stamina longa colu', Ov. Met. iv. 36 'leui deducens pollice filum': for (2) Ov. Met. vi. 22 leui teretem uersabat pollice fusum', Tib. ii. 1. 64 'fusus et apposito pollice uersat opus'.
Critical Apparatus
313 police V
Editor’s Note
314. turbine : turbo is the disk or 'flywheel' on the lower end of the spindle, serving to steady its motion and also to tauten the thread by its weight. When the spindle approached the ground with the lengthening of the twisted yarn, the length of formed yarn was wound up on it, as on a bobbin, and the process started again.
Editor’s Note
tereti : teres, of a smooth, rounded surface: so it is applied to brachiolum (61. 174), strophium (64. 65), bustum (64. 363). Ovid uses it of the fusus itself (Met. vi. 22).
Editor’s Note
315. atque ita : 'and then', like καὶ οὕτως‎, 'that being done': see on 84.
Editor’s Note
decerpens : i.e. all the time (semper) they cleaned the fibre by picking off with their teeth the tufts that made it uneven: cf. Eleg. in Maec. i. 73 f. 'torsisti pollice fusos, / lenisti morsu leuia fila parum'.
Editor’s Note
dens : the abnormal rhythm produced by the stressed monosyllable at the end of the line, conveying the snap of the broken thread, and the sentimentalizing diminutives (see on 60) of the next line, 'their poor old dry lips', give life to the picture. The only other instance in Catullus of a stressed final monosyllable is at 68. 19 where again its effect, enhanced by the pause after the first word of the pentameter, is unmistakable.
Editor’s Note
316. morsa : the substantival use is found only here, but Cicero uses mansa similarly, de Or. ii. 162.
Critical Apparatus
319 custodiebant X
Editor’s Note
319. uellera : the masses of crude wool (rudis lana in Ov. Met. vi. 19) awaiting spinning.
Editor’s Note
uirgati : probably here 'made of uirgae', plaited twigs of osier (cf. Virg. Georg. ii. 241 'spisso uimine qualos', Ov. F. iv. 435 'lento calathos e uimine textos'): elsewhere the word has always the derived sense of 'striped'.
Editor’s Note
calathisci : the Greek diminutive form (καλάθισκος‎) is found only here and in Petronius, but Virgil, Ovid, and Propertius have calathus.
Editor’s Note
custodibant : for the form cf. 68. 85 scibant, 84. 8 audibant.
Critical Apparatus
320 pellentes V, uix recte: uellentes Fruterius, pectentes Statius
Editor’s Note
320. haec : nominative plural feminine: the form with deictic -c is regular in comedy; the evidence for its survival in Cicero (e.g. at Sest. 5) and in Virgil (e.g. at Aen. vi. 852) is dubious.
pellentes uellera : if pellentes is right, it presumably means striking the masses of wool to loosen the fibres, but the phrase is unparalleled and improbable. uellentes uellera (Fruterius) would be a deliberate figura etymologica: the Romans themselves connected the two words (Varro, L.L. v. 54)—and, as it happened, were right in doing so (that lana was cognate with them, as it probably is, they naturally did not guess). Statius's pectentes is ingenious, but out of place: pectere refers to the preliminary operation of carding which prepares the wool for the spinner.
Editor’s Note
321. fuderunt … fata : 'uttered words of destiny': an epic phrase (cf. Lucr. v. 110 'fundere fata') in which fata, 'oracular speech', preserves its connexion with fari; cf. Virg. Aen. vi. 45 'poscere fata' ('seek an oracle'), i. 382 'data fata secutus', Cic. Cat. iii. 9 'ex fatis Sibyllinis'.
Editor’s Note
diuino : 'prophetic', 'inspired', as in 383: so Enn. Ann. 19 V. 'diuinum pectus habere', Virg. Aen. iii. 373 'canit diuino ex ore sacerdos': cf. the substantival use of diuinus, 'soothsayer' (e.g. Hor. Sat. i. 6. 114).
Editor’s Note
323–81. In the older versions of the legend (e.g. in Eur. I.A. 1040 ff.) the Muses sang the marriage-song in honour of Peleus and Thetis. By transferring it to the Fates the poet finds opportunity for carrying his story on into the future with a prediction of the doings of Achilles. The first twelve lines and the last seven are devoted to celebrating the bridal pair and the occasion in an adaptation of traditional form; Achilles is the theme of the twenty-seven lines between. The song is punctuated by a refrain, a device borrowed from Alexandrian poetry. As in the first and second idylls of Theocritus, the refrain occurs at irregular intervals, marking the ends of sentences of five, four, or three lines; Bergk rightly deleted the refrain at 378, where it interrupts a sentence.
Editor’s Note
323. o decus … augens : 'enhancing your rare glory by deeds of prowess': decus is either the inherited distinction of Peleus' race—a characteristically Roman notion: cf. C.I.L. i2. 15 (elogium of Scipio) 'uirtutes generis mieis moribus accumulaui', Nepos, Timoth. 1. 1 'a patre acceptam gloriam multis auxit uirtutibus', Ov. Pont. 1. 8. 17 'ille memor magni generis uirtute quod auget'—or perhaps his own physical beauty (cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 473 'decus egregium formae').
Critical Apparatus
324 tutum opus O, tutum opus al. tu tamen opis X: expediuit Housman
Editor’s Note
324. Housman's repunctuation of this line on which, in the form Emathiae tutamen opis, carissime (or clarissime) nato, editors had exercised their ingenuity for centuries, is the most spectacular contribution of modern scholarship to the interpretation of Catullus.
Editor’s Note
Emathiae tutamen : cf. 26 'Thessaliae columen Peleu': Emathia is properly the name of a part of Macedonia, but Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan all follow Catullus in making it a synonym for Thessaly. (For geographical inaccuracy in Catullus see on 35.)
Editor’s Note
Opis carissime nato represents the Homeric διιφίλης‎: Homer does not actually use that epithet of Peleus, but he calls him (Il. xxiv. 61) Πηλέι ὃς περὶ κῆρι φίλος γένετ‎ʼ ἀθανάτοισιν‎. The Italian goddess Ops came to serve as the Italian counterpart of Rhea, wife of Cronos and mother of Zeus: so the child of Ops is Jupiter here as in Plaut. Persa 252 'Ioui opulento incluto Ope nato', M.G. 1082 'Iuppiter ex Ope natust'. The 'learned' periphrasis is in the Alexandrian manner: cf. 228, 290, 346, 395.
Critical Apparatus
326 oraculum V
Editor’s Note
326 f. sed uos … fusi : on its first occurrence the refrain is linked with the previous line. The construction is currite fusi ducentes subtegmina quae fata sequuntur: i.e. destiny answers to, corresponds to, the spinning of the Fates. The yarn which the spindles draw as they run is called by anticipation subtegmina, properly the threads forming the weft on the loom, on which they are woven across the threads of the warp, stamina: so Horace has certo subtemine of the fateful spinning of the Fates. (On the forms subtegmen and subtemen see Nettleship, Contr. to Lat. Lex. p. 590.) It might equally well be called stamina and Ovid calls it so, Met. iv. 34 'ducunt lanas aut stamina pollice uersant'. Virgil echoes the line in Ecl. 4. 46 'talia saecla, suis dixerunt, currite, fusis'.
Editor’s Note
327 citat Macrobius, sat. vi. 1. 41.
Critical Apparatus
328 aptata V: corr. rmg
Editor’s Note
328. adueniet : as in the opening lines of 62 the Evening Star, the faustum sidus, brings the wedded pair together.
Critical Apparatus
330 uersum om. O
Critical Apparatus
flexo animo X
Critical Apparatus
mentis p. amorem X: corr. Muretus
Editor’s Note
330. flexanimo : 'to flood your heart with soul-charming love': flexanimus is here animum flectens (θελξίφρων‎) as in Pacuvius 177 R. 'o flexanima atque omnium regina rerum oratio': cf. Virg. Georg. iv. 516 'nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei'. Elsewhere the compound is used passively, cui animus flectitur: Pacuv. 422 R. 'flexanima tamquam lymphata aut Bacchi sacris commota'.
Critical Apparatus
331 sonos V: corr. β‎
Critical Apparatus
332 leuia] uenia O
Critical Apparatus
334 umquam tales V: corr. cod. Oxoniensis Laudianus anni mcccclx
Editor’s Note
335 f. nullus amor … qualis concordia : cf. 66. 87–88.
Editor’s Note
336. Pelēō : for the synizesis cf. Virg. Aen. ix. 716 Typhoēō: the Latin form of the dative is used here but the Greek in 382.
Editor’s Note
340. uago … certamine : 'the far-ranging race': see on 271.
Critical Apparatus
341 preuertet β‎: peruertet O, preuertit X
Editor’s Note
341. flammea … uestigia : cf. Virg. Aen. xi. 718 'uirgo pernicibus ignea plantis / transit equum cursu'. Achilles is ποδώκης‎ or πόδας ὠκύς‎ in Homer: for his exploits in the hunt see Pind. Nem. 3. 86.
Editor’s Note
343. non illi : so Homer makes Achilles say of himself (Il. xviii. 105) τοῖος ἐὼν οἷος οὔτις Ἀχαιῶν χαλκοχιτώνων‎ / ἐν πολέμῳ‎. The following lines sum up the whole course of the Trojan War, though Achilles did not live to see the last stage of it and the destruction (uastabit 346) of Troy. Catullus combines three adjectives for 'Trojan', Phrygii, Teucro, Troica.
Critical Apparatus
344 teucro] teuero ut uidetur G1
Critical Apparatus
campi Statius, riui Calph., trunci β‎: teuen O, tenen G, tenen al. teuen R
Editor’s Note
345. longinquo … bello : longinquus can be used as equivalent to longus in the temporal sense, though not in the spatial: so Enn. Ann. 413V. longinqua aetas, Cic. Fin. ii. 94 longinquus dolor, Caes. B.G. v. 29. 7 longinqua obsidione. (On the usage of the word see Nettleship in J. of Phil. xx [1892] 176.)
Editor’s Note
346. periuri : Pelops bribed Oenomaus' charioteer Myrtilus to help him to win a chariot race and thereby secure marriage with his daughter Hippodamia: after his victory he murdered Myrtilus and so brought a curse on his house.
Editor’s Note
Pelopis … tertius heres is certainly Agamemnon but the implied genealogy is doubtful. The normal usage of tertius heres would exclude Pelops himself from the reckoning: so in Ov. Met. xiii. 28 'ab Ioue tertius Aiax' represents the line Jupiter–Aeacus–Telamon–Ajax. Catullus may be following either the Homeric version of the succession in the kingship of Argos (Il. ii. 105 ff.)—Pelops: his son Atreus: his second son Thyestes: Atreus' son Agamemnon—or the variant legends which introduced Plisthenes into the genealogy as son of Atreus and father of Agamemnon.
Critical Apparatus
347 (et saepius) sub tegmine R
Critical Apparatus
350 ita Baehrens, incuruo canos … crines Ellis
Critical Apparatus
incultum] in ciuos O (in ciuum O corr.), in ciuium X: in cinerem β‎
Critical Apparatus
crimen O, crines X
Editor’s Note
350. incultum … soluent : Baehrens's conjecture is plausible; they leave their hair loose and uncombed in token of mourning: cf. Virg. Aen. xi. 35 'maestum Iliades crinem de more solutae', Ov. F. iv. 854 'maestas Acca soluta comas', F. iii. 470 'incultis … comis'. Ellis meant his incuruo (uertice) to mean 'with bowed head' but the phrases which he cites in support, curua anus and the like, are obviously not parallel and it is doubtful whether incuruo uertice could refer to anything but a physical deformity like that of Homer's Thersites, φοξὸς ἔην κεφαλὴν‎ (Il. ii. 219).
Editor’s Note
351. uariabunt : they will leave discoloured marks on their withered breasts: for uarius of weals cf. Plaut. M.G. 216 'uarius uirgis', Poen. 26.
Critical Apparatus
353 praecerpens Statius, prosternens η‎: precernens V (quid G1, latet)
Critical Apparatus
messor O, cultor X
Editor’s Note
353. praecerpens messor : the simile of the reaper was perhaps suggested by Hom. Il. xi. 67 ff. οἱ δ‎ʼ ὥς τ‎ʼ ἀμητῆρες ἐνάντιοι ἀλλἠλοισιν‎ / ὄγμον ἐλαύνωσιν ἀνδρὸς μάκαρος κατ‎ʼ ἄρουραν‎ / πυρῶν ἢ κριθῶν, τὰ δὲ δράγματα ταρφέα πίπτει‎, / ὣς Τρῶες καί Ἀχαιοὶ ἐπ‎ʼ ἀλλήλοισι θορόντες‎ / δῄουν‎. Notice how the particularity of sole sub ardenti and the colour of flauentia give vividness to the picture.
Critical Apparatus
Post u. 354 uersum excidisse censuit Vossius
Critical Apparatus
355 prosternet V (prosternens Rmg) ferrum O
Editor’s Note
355. Troiugenum : Troiugena (also in Lucr.) and Graiugena (in Pacuvius and Lucr.) are words of the old epic style modelled on Greek compounds in -γένης‎. The genitive plural form in -um properly belonged to the second declension only (see on 9. 6), but is extended in verse to masculine nouns of the first: so 68. 138 caelicolum.
Editor’s Note
357. testis erit : these lines are based on Il. xxi. 17 ff.: Accius has similar phrases in his Epinausimachia, fr. 322 R. 'Scamandriam undam salso sanctam obtexi sanguine / atque aceruos alta in amni corpore expleui hostico'. For the device of calling on the scene of a hero's exploits to witness to them cf. Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. iii. 167 (on Scipio) 'testes sunt campi magni', Hor. Od. iv. 4. 38 'quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus, / testis Metaurum flumen', Tib. i. 7. 11 'testis Arar Rhodanusque celer magnusque Garumna', Prop. iii. 7. 21. For a similar personification see on 29. 19.
Editor’s Note
unda Scamandri : the treatment of a final syllable containing a short open vowel before the combination of s and another consonant seems to have presented a problem to Latin poets. Of a syllable left short in that position, as here, there are few examples. Apart from cases involving smaragdus and Zacynthus which, like Scamander, cannot otherwise be used in dactylic verse, there are ten in Lucretius, five in Propertius, and one in Virgil (Aen. xi. 309, where the syllable is followed by a strong pause). Lengthening a syllable in that position is almost as rare: Catullus has nullā spes at 186 and probably supposita speculaā at 67. 32 (besides potē stolidum in priapeans at 17. 24 and gelida stabulā in galliambics at 63. 53): elsewhere there are three examples, one in Tibullus (i. 5. 28 segetē spicas) and two in Grattius (142, 259).
Critical Apparatus
358 elesponto V
Critical Apparatus
359 cessis O
Editor’s Note
359. caesis is awkward before caede but correction to celsis is uncalled for.
Critical Apparatus
360 flumina V (lumina G): flumine al. lumina uel flumina m, al. flumine add. g
Editor’s Note
360. tepēfaciet : so 90. 6 liquēfaciens, but 68. 29 tepĕfactet (if that reading is right) 64. 368 madĕfient. In ordinary speech the original -ē- in these compounds (and in calefacio and patefacio) was reduced to -ĕ- by the operation of iambic shortening (see on 10. 27). The poets sometimes find it convenient to preserve it: so Ovid has liquēfaciunt as well as liquĕfiunt.
Editor’s Note
permixta … caede : no doubt an epic phrase: Lucretius has it twice.
Editor’s Note
362. denique : the final testimony paid to Achilles' uirtutes after his death when, on the fall of Troy, the Greeks at the command of his ghost sacrificed Priam's daughter Polyxena to be his bride in the other world.
Editor’s Note
reddita : 'duly paid'. For morti cf. Ov. Met. ii. 340 'lugent et inania morti / munera dant lacrimas': similarly 101. 3 'munere mortis'.
Editor’s Note
363. bustum : the mounded (teres; see on 314) barrow.
Critical Apparatus
364 percussae Parth.
Critical Apparatus
366 ac ζ‎: hanc V
Editor’s Note
366. fessis : cf. Hor. Od. ii. 4. 11 'tradidit fessis leuiora tolli / Pergama Graecis'.
Editor’s Note
367. soluere : for the infinitive after copiam dare cf. Virg. Aen. ix. 484 'nec te … / adfari extremum miserae data copia matri'.
Editor’s Note
Neptunia … uincla : i.e. the walls built for Laomedon by Poseidon; the use of soluere is perhaps suggested by Homer's Τροίης ἱερὰ κρήδεμνα λύωμεν‎ (Il. xvi. 100).
Critical Apparatus
368 madefient η‎, mitescent ζ‎: madescent V
Editor’s Note
368. Polyxenia : the use of an adjective in place of a genitive (cf. Neptunia above) is an old idiom which the poets found metrically convenient: so in this poem Catullus has 77 Androgeoneae, elsewhere 61. 223 Penelopeo, 66. 8 Beroniceo, 66. 60 Ariadnaeis, 68. 74 Protesilaeam. see on 44. 10 Sestianus.
Editor’s Note
369. quae : the antecedent (Polyxena) is contained in the adjective Polyxenia: so often in prose, e.g. Cic. Brut. 112 'senatoriam sententiam cuius (i.e. senatus) erat ille princeps'. cf. 66. 83.
Editor’s Note
370. summisso poplite : so in Ov. Met. xiii. 477 (describing the same scene) 'defecto poplite labens'.
Editor’s Note
proiciet : 'lets her body fall forward'.
Editor’s Note
371–80. The Fates end their song with two stanzas which are more in keeping with the outspoken badinage of a Roman wedding (cf. 61. 97 ff., 144 ff.) than with the heroic age.
Critical Apparatus
372 animi] añ (ante) O
Editor’s Note
372. optatos : the word is a favourite with Catullus in this connexion: cf. 31, 141, 328, 62. 30, 66. 79.
Editor’s Note
coniungite amores : similarly of reciprocal affection 78. 3 'iungit amores', Tib. i. 1. 69 'interea, dum fata sinunt, iungamus amores', Ov. Tr. ii. 536. animi perhaps serves to stress the notion of wholeheartedness and sincerity.
Editor’s Note
374. dedatur : cf. 61. 58 dedis.
Editor’s Note
iam dudum is best attached to dedatur with the implication of 'immediately', a not uncommon use in jussive phrases: cf. Virg. Aen. ii. 103 'iamdudum sumite poenas', Ov. A.A. i. 317 'iamdudum de grege duci / iussit', ii. 457 'candida iamdudum cingantur colla lacertis', Met. xiii. 457 'utere iamdudum generoso sanguine', Sen. Ep. 75. 7 'iamdudum gaude', 84. 11 'relinque ista iamdudum'.
Critical Apparatus
277 esterno O, externo X
Critical Apparatus
378 currite ducentes subtegmina currite fusi seclusit Bergk
Editor’s Note
377. hesterno … filo : i.e. filo quo heri collum circumdedit: the belief is referred to in Nemesianus 2. 10.
Editor’s Note
379. discordis : i.e. estranged from her husband.
Editor’s Note
380. secubitu : cf. 61. 101.
Critical Apparatus
379–81 om. O
Critical Apparatus
381 currite ()] ducite X: corr. m
Editor’s Note
382. praefantes : praefari is a technical term for uttering either a formula which is to be repeated by others (so Livy v. 41. 3 'pontifice maximo carmen praefante') or, as here, a formula preliminary to a solemn ritual act, in this case the marriage.
Editor’s Note
Pelei : the Greek dative form: in 336 Catullus used the Latin Peleo.
Critical Apparatus
383 cecinerunt β‎ (cf. 64. 16), cecinere e Baehrens: cecinere V (cernere O)
Editor’s Note
383. diuino : see on 321.
Editor’s Note
384–407: taking up a suggestion from Homer (Od. vii. 201 ff. (Alcinous to Odysseus) αἰεὶ γὰρ τὸ πάρος γε θεοὶ φαίνονται ἐναργεῖς‎ / ἡμῖν εὖτ‎ʼ ἔρδωμεν ἀγακλείτας ἑκατόμβας‎ / δαίνυνταί τε παρ‎ʼ ἄμμι καθημένοι ἔνθα περ ἡμεῖς‎), the poet justifies his marvellous tale to his reader and passes into a moralizing epilogue which reflects the general ancient belief in the degeneracy of mankind and the decline from a primitive Golden Age.
  Hesiod's account of human degeneration (Works and Days, 174 ff.) is echoed in Aratus, Phaen. 100 ff., and Catullus may have had some similar hellenistic source in mind. Virgil is clearly thinking of this poem in the fourth Eclogue where (a) the refrain of the Fates' song is verbally echoed (46 'talia saecla, suis dixerunt, currite, fusis'), (b) Achilles, in Catullus the consummation of the heroic age, is to be reborn in the new golden age, and (c) the child is to see the gods face to face when Justice returns to earth, as men did before she fled (15 'ille deum uitam accipiet diuisque uidebit / permixtos heroas et ipse uidebitur illis'). The reminiscence of Catullus is unmistakable; whether Catullus meant his whole poem to have a symbolic significance and chose to tell the story of Peleus and Thetis to point the moral which the envoi makes explicit is another question.
Editor’s Note
384. namque : for the postponement see on 23. 7.
Editor’s Note
praesentes : in bodily shape, Homer's ἐναργεῖς‎.
Editor’s Note
ante : adverbial, 'in former days', τὸ πάρος‎ in Homer.
Critical Apparatus
385 heroum et Sigicellus apud Statium (et iam 1472), saepius et Calph.: nereus V
Editor’s Note
385. coetu : again in 66. 37: the dative form in -u is common in Lucretius and in Virgil.
Critical Apparatus
Post u. 386 exhibuit V languidior tenera cui pedens (sic) sicula beta (67. 21): eiecit Parth.
Editor’s Note
386. nondum spreta : i.e. when pietas (see on 76. 2) was not ignored as it has been in later days.
Critical Apparatus
387 reuisens suspectum: residens Baehrens
Editor’s Note
387. reuisens : 'paying his regular visit', but the construction is harsh: Baehrens's residens derives some support from Hom. Hymn 2. 27 (Ζεὺς‎) νόσφιν‎ / ἧστο θεῶν ἀπάνευθε πολυλλίστῳ ἐνὶ νηῷ‎.
Critical Apparatus
388 cum η‎: dum V
Critical Apparatus
uenisset V: corr. η‎
Editor’s Note
388. uenissent : 'came round': cf. Ov. Am. iii. 10. 1 'annua uenerunt Cerealis tempora sacri'.
Critical Apparatus
389 terram O
Critical Apparatus
procurrere (currus) γ‎
Critical Apparatus
tauros Italos secutus Lachmann: currus V
Editor’s Note
390. uagus : see on 271. Liber, that is, Dionysus (the Italian wine-god early took over the mythology of his Greek counterpart), is represented as he is in Eur. fr. 752 N.2 (Hypsipyle) Διόνυσος ὃς θύρσοισι καὶ νεβρῶν δοραῖς‎ / καθαπτὸς ἐν πεύκαισι Παρνασὸν κάτα‎ / πηδᾷ χορεύων παρθένοις σὺν Δέλφισιν‎. The name Thyiades (Θυιάδες‎)—applicable, like Maenades, to any female devotees of orgiastic rites—was particularly attached to the Delphian women who followed Dionysus: cf. Paus. x. 32. 7.
Critical Apparatus
391 thiadas O, thyadas X
Editor’s Note
391. euantis : the verb, formed (like εὐάζειν‎) from the maenad cry (cf. 255), appears first here.
Critical Apparatus
392 certatum V: corr. α‎
Critical Apparatus
tuentes V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Editor’s Note
392. Delphi : here the citizens, not the city.
Critical Apparatus
393 acciperet V: corr. ζ‎η‎
Critical Apparatus
lacti V (lacti al. leti R, leti al. lacti m, leti g)
Critical Apparatus
spumantibus η‎
Critical Apparatus
394 mauros G
Editor’s Note
394. Mauors : the archaic form of Mars belongs to the epic style; so probably does the phrase belli certamine; cf. Lucr. i. 475, v. 1296 certamina belli.
Critical Apparatus
395 Amarunsia Baehrens, ramnusia 1472: ramunsia O, ranusia X (cf. 66. 71)
Editor’s Note
395. Tritonis era represents Athena's Homeric title Τριτογένια‎, which ancient mythographers derived from a lake Triton or a river of that name (rapidi shows that Catullus has a river in mind) variously placed in Libya, Boeotia, and Thessaly.
Editor’s Note
Amarunsia uirgo : the early and obvious correction of the ramunsia or ranusia of the manuscripts was Ramnusia, the title which Catullus himself uses in 66. 71 and 68. 77 for Nemesis. But while the intervention of Ares and Athena in the fighting of mortals is familiar from Homer, (Il. iv. 439 ὦρσε δὲ τοὺς μὲν Ἄρης, τοὺς δὲ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη‎: cf. v. 447, 676, xx. 33 and 39), the appearance of Nemesis in this connexion is quite inexplicable. Baehrens's Amarunsia is certain (apart from the matter of spelling): it is a cult-title of Artemis derived from Amarynthus (Ἀμάρυνθος‎) in Euboea (Paus. i. 31. 4 writes Ἀμαρυσία‎: Livy has the alternative form Amarynthis, xxxv. 38. 3), and Artemis is with the other major deities in Il. xx. 39. Wilamowitz's attempt (Antigonos von Karystos, 11) to find justification for calling either Artemis or Aphrodite R(h)amnusia is curiously misguided: R(h)amnusia here would have to mean what it means in the two other places where Catullus uses it.
Editor’s Note
399–404. The verbs emphatically placed at the beginning of three successive lines, the repeated natus … nati … nato, the balanced fraterno … fratres, the reiterated impia, all serve to heighten the enormity of human sin.
Editor’s Note
399. fratres : so in similar contexts Lucretius writes (iii. 72) 'crudeles gaudent in tristi funere fratris' and Virgil (Georg. ii. 510) 'gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum'.
Editor’s Note
401. primaeui : cf. Virg. Aen. vii. 162 'primaeuo flore iuuentus'.
Critical Apparatus
402 uix sanum, uti nuptae Maehly
Critical Apparatus
potiretur V: corr. η‎
Critical Apparatus
nouellae Baehrens
Editor’s Note
402. liber … nouercae : the text as it stands has to be taken to mean 'desired his son's death so that without hindrance he might possess himself of a virgin who would be a stepmother': one must suppose that the father is marrying a young second wife and wants to get rid of a grown-up son who threatens to disturb his felicity. But innuptae nouercae seems impossibly compressed and innuptae is pointless—his intended bride is presumably innupta and it is only when she becomes nupta that she can be nouerca: Maehly's uti nuptae 'possess himself of a bride as a stepmother' is the only plausible correction that has been proposed. Wilamowitz's suggestion that in- is prepositional, not negative, and that innupta represents ἐπιγαμηθεῖσα‎ 'brought in as a new wife', cannot be taken seriously: there is no evidence that innupta could bear that sense and a reader familiar with the ordinary usage of the word—a common word which Catullus himself uses at 1. 78—could not be expected to recognize it.
Critical Apparatus
404 penates 1472: parentes V
Editor’s Note
404. penates : V read parentes. di parentes, or di parentum, are the spirits of dead ancestors whose goodwill their descendants seek with propitiatory offerings (parentatio). A letter of Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, quoted by Nepos (fr. 16 Peter) has 'ubi mortua ero, parentabis mihi et inuocabis deum parentem', and dedicatory inscriptions have dis parentibus sacrum and the like (e.g. C.I.L. vi. 29852a: a series from Verona, C.I.L. v. 3283–90, has the variant diis parentibus augustis). But while the di parentes are offended by injuries done to parents by their children (Festus 260 L. quotes an old law, 'si parentem puer uerberit … puer diuis parentum sacer esto'), the mother's sin here described is not an offence against them. The old correction penates is probably right: it is the life of the family, and the penates who preside over it, that she outrages.
Editor’s Note
405. omnia fanda nefanda : cf. Ov. Met. vi. 585 'fasque nefasque / confusura ruit', Sen. Dial. iv. 9. 2 'uelut signo dato ad fas nefasque miscendum coorti sunt'.
Editor’s Note
406. iustificam : the adjective occurs only here but is one of a class of poetic compounds characteristic of the archaic style: so Ennius has regificus for regius, Lucretius largificus for largus. Cf. amplifice 265.
Editor’s Note
407. talis brings the reader back, somewhat prosaically, to the theme of the poem.
Editor’s Note
408. contingi … lumine claro : probably (1) 'be touched by the bright light of day' and so be visible to men, rather than (2) 'be reached by bright (human) eyes': for the latter meaning Kroll compares Lucr. iv. 824 'lumina … oculorum clara creata / prospicere ut possimus'.